Microsoft Bitcoin Miner | CryptoCoins Info Club


Welcome to unquestionably the best, cleverest and down-right coolest privacy-tech community on the planet! DarkNote (formerly known as duckNote) is an anonymous open-source cryptocurrency based on CryptoNote technology and the CryptoNight algorithm. While we take our technology seriously, we are also a very friendly and fun community. Please come in, have a seat, eat a duck or two... and join us!

Expanse Coin

Expanse (Expanse Coin) is an ethereum like smart contract blockchain platform. Focusing on identity, equity, philanthropy, gamification and governance.

QuarkCoin Cryptocurrency

Quark is a decentralized digital monetary system. It facilitates sending Quarks to Friends, Family Members Online Payments free of charges and charge-backs. Military Grade Encryption. No Bank or Government Control. Quark coins are based on the original idea of Bitcoin but improved, more secure, faster transaction times and zero fees. With improvements to design and security. There is also a greater coin supply with higher block rewards for miners. Quark is fully Open Source.

12-15 11:54 - 'Microsoft Miner CC will take over Softwares in 2020' ( by /u/devtechplus removed from /r/Bitcoin within 8-18min

Microsoft Miner CC will take over Softwares in 2020
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: devtechplus
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

10-21 11:03 - 'Ebang launched the new 7nm miner, the most powerful and efficient miner' ( by /u/TopSurround6 removed from /r/Bitcoin within 49-59min

Ebang launched the new 7nm miner, the most powerful and efficient miner
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: TopSurround6
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

10-22 17:23 - 'Should I buy this miner or just buy BTC? It is the latest 7nm miner released by Ebang' ( by /u/SuspiciousMortgage removed from /r/Bitcoin within 11-21min

Should I buy this miner or just buy BTC? It is the latest 7nm miner released by Ebang
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: SuspiciousMortgage
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

10-29 11:43 - 'New Bitcoin miner released by eBang, what is your opinion on it?' ( by /u/KindlyKnowledge removed from /r/Bitcoin within 51-61min

New Bitcoin miner released by eBang, what is your opinion on it?
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: KindlyKnowledge
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

[Frances Coppola] cc @odtorson he sheds a bit more light on it here. Thinking seems to be that miners have to sell bitcoins to pay th…

[Frances Coppola] cc @odtorson he sheds a bit more light on it here. Thinking seems to be that miners have to sell bitcoins to pay th… submitted by jeff98379 to newstweetfeed [link] [comments]

10-02 00:02 - 'Here's a list of CEOs and Miners who agreed in a closed door meeting to hard fork Bitcoin to a 2mb block size limit' ( by /u/CC_EF_JTF removed from /r/Bitcoin within 20-30min

Here's a list of CEOs and Miners who agreed in a closed door meeting to hard fork Bitcoin to a 2mb block size limit
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: CC_EF_JTF
submitted by removalbot to removalbot [link] [comments]

On the Instability of Bitcoin Without the Block Reward

My main long term concern with Bitcoin has, for awhile, been the question of what happens when the block reward / subsidy gets close to zero. I have heard many reasonable concerns expressed about the prospect of a bitcoin without block subsidies, and no convincing rebuttals.
So on this eve of the third halving, I'd like to raise this concern for discussion. To facilitate the discussion, I want to share a paper I'm currently reading, titled 'On the Instability of Bitcoin Without the Block Reward'. (PDF) Basically, they argue that in this scenario, option two can potentially be more profitable for a miner than option one. If you don't intuitively see it, I'd recommend reading at least the first page or so of the paper for a description of the problem.
I'd also like to note, explicitly, this paper isn't arguing that fees can't replace block rewards. It's saying that this problem exist even if fees replace block rewards 1:1.
That said, I do also worry that fees will have a very hard time replacing block rewards. Right now, even after the halving, each block is worth over 50,000 USD. Since a block can contain at most about 6,000 transactions, you're looking at fees of about 8 USD per transaction, absolute minimum. Even for opening/closing a Lightning Channel, that feels high. Sure, it'd be nothing to large institutions, but is that the future we want for bitcoin, a chain that prices out common users? And while it's true that the chain could operate with less rewards going to miners overall, that would have negative implications for security and transaction finality.
Worse yet, it seems, is that without a subsidy, the security of the chain absolutely depends on this fee market developing. There needs to be a backlog of transactions for the chain to function function. Clearing the mempool becomes bad because 1 sat/byte fees aren't going to be adequate to secure the chain.
So those are my thoughts on this. What are yours? I'd love to see some good and polite discussion around this topic, either around the specific concerns I've raised, or other concerns related to block subsidy reductions.
submitted by MoneroArbo to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

My top 5 (and more) arguments against the mining tax as implemented in ABC 0.21.0

These are mine, but I'd like to hear yours in the comments!
  1. Corrupting influence. Mixing monetary policy (money supply regulation, in Bitcoin: coin creation) and fiscal policy (roughly: government spending and taxing) is what central banks already do, and we know the results. Bitcoin was not designed to deliver such a mix - the newly created coin was, up to now, fully owned by the miner creating the block, and matures after a certain time when it can be spent. Miners can voluntary spend their coinbase outputs to other parties already. In this way fiscal decisions are decentralized as much possible - meaning every miner / pool gets to decide how to spend 100% of their mining block reward (or share thereof). Do you already see how Bitcoin's design removes all possible financial intermediaries - including any trusted "government" or "fund" that decides how to spend other peoples' money? If so, you already get my first point. Peter Rizun has mentioned the legal concerns around directing colluding miner funds to certain entities with expectation of results. IANAL, but I think the argument that instituting such a change on protocol level could bring BCH into conflict with security law (Howey Test) should be seriously examined.
  2. Due to how information is distributed, a centrally planned economy cannot match the efficiency of the open market. A free market is all that is needed to fund things. Miners and anyone else can already fund any kind of development (or other activities) through the existing protocol. Furthermore, we know there are successful methods of funding public goods in voluntary ways through Assurance Contracts. These have not been deployed on Bitcoin Cash before (early crowdfunding systems didn't implement them properly), but are basically ready to go now (Flipstarter) and could offer BCH an improvement even over other successful systems like Monero's Community Crowdfunding System (CCS) due to the fact that we can do this non-custodially via Bitcoin Cash scripts. Going for a miner tax based "dev fund" with nebulous administration and all the accompanying hazards seems a poor choice before we tried the voluntary route which preserves the original economic freedom and incentives of Bitcoin Cash.
  3. Increased centralization of mining and development. Going with the plan would work counter to a decentralized protocol client environment, and centralize even more power with the dominant client (ABC). The donation address whitelist is hardcoded into the client. Miners/pools who don't obey the new rules of contributing 5% of block reward to active whitelisted addresses have their blocks orphaned, lowering the chain hashrate (security) and driving away small miners who might not be able to afford the margin. This centralizes mining on BCH beyond what's necessary. Again, a free market will deliver better security and service!
  4. Sold with a veneer of false pretenses. We are told that other (non-BCH) SHA256 miners will effectively pay the cost, but this argument has been effectively debunked. The cost is paid for all BCH holders, as it comes out of the agreed upon money supply inflation. It comes at the cost of lowered BCH chain hashrate = security, with the concomitant increased risk of other miners executing attacks on BCH. Yet, holders don't get to vote right now, except by selling their BCH or converting it into hashpower. Did you know financial markets can offer instruments to let holders express their opinion about possible futures (whether they'd prefer one outcome or another) with slight or no punishment in the case of no split - i.e. actually could facilitate a no-split outcome that many BCH users & holders recognize as preferable? Another pretense is that the plan, if successful, would terminate after a limited time. This is not what regularly happens in taxpayer-funded government programs, and it is paradoxical to assume that a measure to support ongoing maintenance and development would, if deemed successful in a trial run, be expected to be terminated. Especially if the people receiving the funds are literally the ones deciding and writing the rules. In governments we at least came up with separation of powers (legislative, judicial, executive). Why should be mix up powers again? Absolute power corrupts absolutely. Serious developers also recognize that the dollar amounts we are talking about in the proposed plan are too low to expect completion within the previously announced limited timeframes. Giving a good hint that the limited timeframe was a nothing but a public pacifier when planners already expect it to continue.
  5. The proposal is poorly conceived in terms of safety against malicious activation. Only 66% of hashrate need to vote for it over a two week period. Previously, BCH miners objected to any form of hashrate voting on BCH with the argument that it is still a very-low hashrate minority fork. That has not changed materially, but suddenly we are supposed to accept that hashrate voting on our minority coin is safe. Can't have it both ways. As an additional point, there is no 6 month sunset clause built into the implementation, and it seems removed from the plan agreed between ABC and miners (as per recent ABC website post). This completely reneges on the "update" previously presented to the community in that regard, re-affirming that there is no serious commitment to ending this after a limited time.
I probably squeezed in too many explanations.
Originally my aim was to get a short summary. I should try to sum it up better, but I know there are many people who could do a much better job at that. Please speak up, correct me where you feel I'm wrong, and add points that you think are missing!
P.S. I fully realize that the ones pushing this plan are not likely to be swayed by any of these arguments.
I am presenting mine here in hopes to encourage further discussion, and I hope you will do the same, so everyone is armed with knowledge, going into what looks like it could be an escalating dispute within our community.
Perhaps though, there is a minute chance that backers of the plan could see the danger in the split that they are creating. I still have hope, but I'm also prepared to act.
submitted by ftrader to btc [link] [comments]

AMA Recap of CEO and Co-founder of Chromia, Henrik Hjelte in the @binancenigeria Telegram group on 03/05/2020.

Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,
Please join me to welcome, “CHROMIA CEO & Co-founder, Henrik Hjelte” and “ CMO, Serge lubkin”
Oh, before we proceed, kindly introduce yourselves and tell us a bit about your roles at Chromia u/sergelubkin & u/henrik_hjelte.
Henrik Hjelte,
Ok, I’m Henrik, I’m CEO of ChromaWay that crated the Chromia project. My background is a bit mixed: developer for 30+ years (since 80: s), but I studied other things at university (economics, politics, social sciences philosophy). Life is more than computer you know… I worked with FInance/IT then started a web startup and got to know Alex Mizrahi who worked as a developer….
Web startup didn’t fly, but Alex showed me bitcoin. When I finally read the whitepaper I was blown away, and joined Alex colored-coins project, the first open source protocol to issue tokens. in 2013.
So, we started with open-source tokens (that kickstarted the blockchain industry. Then started company together 2014.
That is a long intro, I’ll shut up now… Thanks….
I’m Serge, I’m assisting Henrik today and I work with Chromia marketing team as well as on some business development projects
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬, , Question No 1 :
Kindly describe the CHROMIA project and what it aims to achieve?
Henrik Hjelte,
Chromia is a new public blockchain based on the idea of integrating traditional databases, Relational databases with blockchain security. Chromia is a general purpose blockchain with full smart contract capabilities, just that it is a lot easier to code, even complex applications. You code with an easy to learn new programming language that combines the power of SQL and normal languages but makes it secure in a blockchain context. Up to 1/10 the code-lines vs other blockchains. There is a blog post about it, I’ll share later. On lines of code.
The aim of Chromia is to combine relational databases, which exist in every kind of organization, together using blockchains. We want to provide a platform for our users to develop totally decentralized apps securely. Our goal is for Chromia to be seen as the number one infrastructure for decentralized applications.
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,Question No 2:
What inspired the CHROMIA Core team to pick interest in CHROMIA project? what breakthrough have you achieved so far? what are the present challenges you’re facing and how are you planning to overcome them?
Henrik Hjelte,
We started with public blockchains, tokens in 2012, the world’s first stable coin with a bank 2015 (LHV). When coding that solution, peer to peer payments of Euro-tokens, we discovered we need performance reasons to store all data in a database. We needed to quickly know the “balance” of a user, and can’t loop through a blockchain. And slowly the idea grew that we can make the database INTO a blockchain, integrate completely with the transaction mechanism of a database. So, we did it as a private blockchain first (Postchain), used it for some projects, then came up with the idea to make a Public Blockchain based on it.
The motivation is that we felt we needed a better programming model for blockchains. Our CTO Alex has always been thinking of optimal solutions for blockchain technology and has lots of experiences thinking about it. Also: make real-world useful things. For example, we support free-to-play models since users do not need to own “our” token to USE apps, the application itself (often the developer) pays for hosting. And of course, great performance. Also: more knowledge of who runs nodes and risk level. So, it is more suitable for enterprises.
In Chromia the application (at the start the developer) decides Who should be allowed to run its own blockchain (every dapp has its own blockchain). You can also say on a higher level that we want to provide technology to create “Public applications”, a tool
that enables us to create a fairer world.
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬, Question No 3 :
Why did you create your own blockchain instead of leveraging on existing and proven base layer protocol?
Henrik Hjelte,
None of the existing protocols are suitable to support large-scale, mainstream applications. We designed Chromia to give our users exactly what they want; fast support, useful features, with an affordable service cost. Other platforms do not have the ability to host data applications in a decentralized and secure way, as Chromia can. Chromia also has its own bespoke programming language that sets it apart from SQL-based platforms. It’s so easy to use, even non-developers can understand it!
The other big difference with Chromia concerns payments. Chromia gives its users freedom from having to pay for each transaction. With Chromia, you have the flexibility to decide how to set fees for your dapp
And when it comes to “proven base layer protocols”: they are just a few years at max. Chromia is built on top of Postgresql, that has been used in enterprises for decades, a really proven technology. And the Java virtual machine on top of that. This is proven tech, at core.
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬, Question No 4 :
What is Postchain?
Henrik Hjelte,
Postchain is an open-source product of ChromaWay for enterprise clients and it’s the core technology on which Chromia is built.
Postchain is a replicated blockchain and database that offers highly resilient distributed database management with distributed control.
Postchain is the only product on the market that combines the immutable consensus of a blockchain and the properties of a real database management system (You know, the tech that built SAP, Facebook, Banks…) …
Postchain allows you to share information between companies and/or individuals in a secure and transparent way.
That is the low-level base of Chromia you can say
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,
Can you please name some of your clients that are using this service already?
You mean products built on Postchain? Also, Stockholm Green Digital Finance, Green Assets Wallet that’s now functioning on Chromia Bootstrap Mainnet.
Big financial institutions
It’s only a beginning of course, but very promising one.
Henrik Hjelte,
We got a lot of attention with the Swedish Land registry; we did a joint project between them and banks and a telco etc on postchain as base.
Then, right now we do a large project with the Inter-American Development bank also about land-registration (processes) in South America.
We had a client, Stockholm Green Digital Finance, that did a system for green bonds (tracking environmental impact. Yes, as Sege says, it was later moved to Chromia…
Which is cool. Also, another external development company did that phase of the project, proving that other can build on our tech,4irelabs from Ukraine is their name. Some companies using the GAW: Blackrock. SEB Bank etc…
Also, we have done more projects, in Australia, asia etc. Oh Daimler too (the Mercedes company) …
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,
Lots of enterprise clients you’ve got. No wonder I do see the meme “CHR=ETH KILLER”
It’s a meme from our supporters. But we believe we can coexist:)
For some niche things eth is good :)
So, no killing :D
Henrik Hjelte,
We want to work with partners too for this, we can’t do all projects ourselves. Also, for Chromia projects, ChromaWay company can help do support maintenance etc. So, it is not competing, it adds value to the ecosystem.
Yeah ETH is good too, for some applications. We are friends with them from colored-coin times.
And colored-coins inspired ETH, and ETH inspires us.
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬, Question No 5 :
Lastly, CHROMIA is already doing very well in terms of business. You just got listed on BINANCE JEX, you are on-boarding new clients and dishing out new features. But what’s next? Is there anything to be excited about?
Henrik Hjelte,
Plans for 2020 are to both release a series of dapps to showcase how fantastic Chromia is, as well as continue to develop the platform. And when it is secure and good enough, we will release the mainnet.
Dapps are now being made by us as well as others. We do a decentralized social network framework called Chromunity, now released to TestNet. It is really cool, users can vote over moderators, and in the future users might even govern the complete application, how it can be updated. This is a great showcase for Chromia and why we use the slogan Power to the Public.
Games coming are:
Mines of Dalarnia (by Workinman Interactive). An action game in a mine with blockchain rental of plots and stuff. Already on TestNet and you can take a peek on it at
more coming…
Krystopia 2, novas journey. A puzzle game done by Antler Interactive. Could only find trailer though:
However, we have even larger ambitions with blockchain gaming…
We are doing A secret demo-project that we do together with Antler to showcase the technical potential of Chromia platform.
Another exciting relase is an indie game Chain of Alliance, done by two external developers. It is a strategy game with full-logic on blockchain. Public release on TestNet on May 22!
More coming in 2020: Other dapps from other companies, one in impact-tech.
That is a serious app, Chromia also works outside gaming and social media for enterprises and startups
And I hope some of you will do something, we want to support dapps on the platform so reach out to us…
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,
When can we be expecting the mainnet? Any approximate time? I’m sure the community will really excited to have that info
It’s now in Bootstap phase, so it’s technically already functioning. MVP will be very soon
Stay tuned;)
Twitter questions Vs answers
What’s the unique thing in Chromia that no other blockchain has, that makes you the better option?
Henrik Hjelte,
Unique: Chromia is the only blockchain that also has a real, proper database built-in. And blockchain is about managing data in a shared context. How to best managed data was solved in computer science already. So far, it is the relational algebra model that is used in 100% of all enterprises, and has an 85% market share. Chromia is the only blockchain that use that model and that power.
Why Chromia use RELL and not SQL or JavaScript? Can developers with other language knowledge use Chromia?
Rell is the only language on the blockchain side. You can combine with anything on client-side, although now client only exists for JS/TS, C# and Java/Kotlin. Rell is a language for relational blockchain programming. It combines the following features:
1 Relational data modeling and queries similar to SQL. People familiar with SQL should feel at home once they learn the new syntax.
2 Normal programming constructs: variables, loops, functions, collections, etc.
3 Constructs which specifically target application backends and, in particular, blockchain-style programming including request routing, authorization, etc.
Rell aims to make programming as convenient and simple as possible. It minimizes boilerplate and repetition. At the same time, as a static type system it can detect and prevent many kinds of defects prior to run-time.
Roshan DV,
I have been monitoring your project for a while but some concerns about it: Your project will build your own core network, so you have more visibility than Ethereum and NEO. These are projects that were born before and which also have a very large community. And what can assure you that your project will guarantee the functionalities that you have defined?
Henrik Hjelte,
What came first? I want to remind that Vitalik was in the colored-coins project, led by our CTO and we had blockchain in production before ETH and NEO etc existed. We are the old dogs…
Large community: We are part of the same community. When developers are fustrated and want to try new tech, they go to us from other blockchains.
Also, we have a large potential: SQL (close to Rell and our tech) is the world top 3 language. Bigger than Java. Bigger than PHP. Only beaten bny HTML and javascript. Soliditiy is not on top 20 list. THere are millions of developers that know SQL. That is potential for community… (source is Stackoverflow annual programming survey).
Paul (Via Manage),
What are the utilities of Chromia and what purpose does the Chromia coin serve?
Chromia meta-token called Chroma (CHR). It is used in Chromia to compensate block-producing nodes by fees. In Chromia, fees are paid by dapps, which can in their turn collect fees from users. Chromia provides mechanisms which balance the interests of developers and users. Dapp tokens can be automatically backed with Chroma, providing liquidity and value which is independent of investment into the dapp. Dapp investors can be compensated in Chroma through a profit-sharing contract. For developers, Chromia offers the opportunity to derive income from dapps. This incentivises the creation and maintenance of high quality dapps because better dapps generate more income and create more demand for tokens owned by the developer. The Chromia model is designed to support sustainable circular economies and foster a mutually beneficial relationship between developers, users, and investors.
Idemudia Isaac,
Thank you very much u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
You stated your plans for 2020 is to release series of dApps. What kind of large scale, mainstream decentralized application and $Chromia products do you think is suitable for the Nigerian environment?
Henrik Hjelte,
Actually, this is why we want to work with partners. We cannot know everything, For African market we have seen of course payments/remittances (but it has fallen out of trend). We would love to do real-estate /land-registration but we understand we need a strong local partner (more than a single person, a real company or organization driving).
●CC● | Elrond 🇵🇭,
What plans do you have to building a vibrant global community around Rell? And how would you go about encouraging/incentivising such ‘Rellists’ around the world to build dApps on Chromia? u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
Henrik Hjelte,
For developers (I am one too, or used to be) you normally need to prove a few things:
\ That the tech is productive (can I do apps faster?)*
\ That it is better (less bugs, more maintainable?)*
Then the community will come. We see that all the time. Look at web development. React.js came, and developers flooded to it. Not because of marketing on Superbowl, but because it was BETTER. Fewer bugs and easier to do complex webapps.
So, at core: people will come when we showcase the productivity gains, and that is what we need to focus on.
●CC● | Elrond 🇵🇭,
Why do you choose to build Chromia token on ERC20 instead of other blockchain such as BEP2, TRC20…or your own chain while ERC20 platform is very slow and have a case of fee? u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
So far Ethereum has the best infrastructure, it’s the oldest and most reliable network for tokens. It also became the industry standard which exchanges utilize. We will transfer 80% of all erc20 tokens to our Chromia blockchain when it’s ready for that.
In your whitepaper it says in the upcoming version of ChromiaWallet that it will be able to function as a Dapp browser for public use. Q) Will it be similar to the Dapp browser on Trust Wallet?
It’s live already try it
It’s the wallet and a dapp browser
Your metamorphosis is a laudable one,surviving different FUD, how have you been able to survive this longest bear market and continue building and developing cos many projects have died out in this time period!
Henrik Hjelte,
You need to know we started a company before ETH existed. There was 0 money in blockchain when we started. I did it becuase it was fun, exciting tech and MAYBE someone would be interested in the thing we made “Tokens”…
We were never in the crazy bull-market, manly observed the crazies from the side. We fundraised for CHR in a dip (they called it bear market). ChromaWay the company also make money from enterprises.
What is SSO?
What makes it important for chromias ecosystem?
Why should we users be attracted to it?’
Chromia SSO is perhaps the most important UX improvement that Chromia offers the decentralized world. It revolutionizes the way users interact with dapps. Any dapp requires users to sign transactions, that means they need a private key. Control of the private key is control of any and all dapps or assets associated with it. This means that private keys have an especially stringent set of security requirements in a blockchain context — they control real value, and there is no recourse if they are compromised or lost.
Olufemi Joel,
How do you see the Chromia project developing in 3 to 5 years, both on the commercial level and on the evolution of the company? What are the plans for expansion in different regions? Are you going to outsource the team/skills or keep it centralized and set up offices?
Henrik Hjelte,
I take part of the question. On outsource: we were a distributed team from day one, with co-founders from 3 countries (still living there). We are distributed now, Ukraine, Sweden, Vietnam, Croatia, China are “hubs” then we have individuals too. No big plan, just where we found great developers…
Park Lee, u/henrik_hjelte
You claim CHOROMIA have fast support, useful features with an affordable service cost. That fast and the fees are cheap but can you guarantee stability?
What’s the Algorithms which are used by CHROMIA for that fast? And Can you explain it?
We use PBFT protocol with some features of DPOS, this plus sidechains parallelism offers almost unlimited speed and scalability. We also use the feature called anchoring to secure all transactions in batches on Bitcoin blockchain.
Mario Boy,
What are you guys trying to achieve as an end goal? The next Ethereum? Or the next enterprise version of Ethereum? Or something different?
Henrik Hjelte,
The end goal… good question. When we started in 2014 there were no other blockchain companies, so we wanted to do the best blockchain technology in order to enable a decentralized world with more fair applications. And that is what we still do. Technology/software that can enable people to make a fairer world
Erven James Sato,
Does your GREAT PROJECT have plan about Staking?
Yes, we announced our staking plans couple of months ago
We are working with our current partners to make it accessible for general public.
I often see Chromia and ChromaWay being used interchangeably, what is the relationship between the two?
Henrik Hjelte,
ChromaWay the company started Chromia from code done as postchain. This is normal in open-source development, a company that leads development. But Chromia will be a decentalized network, so ChromaWay will not make direct money out of it more than if we have a role as a Provider (and get payed for hosting). ChromaWay can indirectly make money from optional support and maintenance etc. Also, this, perfectly normal in open-source world.
And it also benefits Chromia that there is a market for support.
A market open for competition.
No special treatment for “ChromaWay”
How to start coding on Chromia?
Henrik Hjelte,
Go to and follow the tutorial. Enjoy the free time you get compared to other blockchain languages…
●CC● | Elrond 🇵🇭,
Chromia process 500 TPS, these is slow compare to other Blockchains, where we can see now 60K TPS if more capacity require, how can that be? u/henrik_hjelte u/sergelubkin
Yes, if you need faster speed you can use parallelism by having multiple blockchains for your dapp. Also, by optimization and better architecture sky is the limit.
Delphino.eth ⟠,
Can we consider Chromia an hybrid? For its mixing of Blockchain and a Database?
Henrik Hjelte,
Yes and no. I want to stress that Chromia is a FULL blockchain. It is not only “inspired”. It is a blockchain AND a database.
I tend to think about Hybrid more in the usecases that you might have as a customer. For example, a bank might want to have some data/transactions private (as a private blockchain) and have another half of the application with public data (on Chromia). So that is a hybrid solution, and Chromia ROCKS in that segment since it is the only blockchain that is complete relational database (what the normal world uses anyway for 85% of all applications)
Example area: “open banking”
Steve bush,
How will Chromia I have any empower Investors, Companies, Developers, Platform Users to
deliver impactful solutions and bring value to people all over the world?
Henrik Hjelte,
In order to make blockchain go big, we need to have users. Users need to be able to use apps with ease. Chromia have features like single-sign on (ease of use), but importantly do not require owning tokens to USE apps.
Also, it needs to be easy to make applications. For example, if you are a student in US and came up with an idea, you want to make an application for your school. Let’s call it “thefacebook”. You code something in PHP and MySQL. DID YOU SEE THAT. SQL. SQL.SQL. It is the same tech that Chromia has but no one else in the blockchain business. SQL rules the world if you look outside the crypto bubble. Google the Oracle head-office… 100% of all enterprises use it… Because it is easy and powerful.
And we even improve on SQL with Rell….
So, compare that with a hacky virtual machine that have a few years…. 😊
“Mines of Dalarnia” is a game that has caught my attention a lot, due to its simplicity and quality. But in the time that I have used it I have not been able to differentiate between the Chromia blockchain of this game and that of the competition? What other games do you have next to develop? I would like to give ideas in those games like a Gamers!
Henrik Hjelte,
We thought about in corona time sports club might want to engage more with their fans digitally. And of course, E-Sports is getting a real momentum as the young generation grows up. Now a bit sad that all games are centralized. My daughter will be sad when (at some day?) they will close down roblox… it happens to all centralized apps eventually… that is what we fix. Power to the Public to control apps and their future. I’ll repost again Alex post. Sorry I like it a lot…
Good day Chromia team from a Chromia fan
Can you tell us Chromia’s geographical focus at the moment and the proces it follows for it BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT?
What factors do you consider before identifying NEW MARKETS to enter?
Chromia will initially focus on community building in China, Korea, US and Europe. The focus of community growth will gradually expand to other markets as the project gains popularity.
Current community growth strategies of Chromia include:
Chromia blockchain incubator creation to welcome more projects to the Chromia blockchain
Host blockchain gaming conferences, workshops, and meetups to engage with potential users.
Provide online and face-to-face tutorials to engage with dapps developers.
Attract blockchain developers through direct and indirect approach via specialized platforms and communities.
Develop our relations with existing and previous corporate clients, and their partnership networks to participate in their blockchain ventures
Launch Node program to encourage system providers to run nodes on the Chromia blockchain.
Staking program for Chroma (CHR) tokens
Active community engagement via social channels.
Future community growth strategies of Chromia after Mainnet launch include:
Partner with more gaming studios, startups and enterprises
Build local communities with Ambassador Programs.
Partner with external incubator and accelerators to provide blockchain expertise and introduce projects to Chromia ecosystem
Continue organizing hackathons around the world to attract more developers.
I want to know the current structure of your roadmap? What is the future roadmap of CHROMIA? Is there any key milestone coming???
Henrik Hjelte,
It is easy to do a roadmap; anyone can make a pape plan. But I think they are used in the wrong way. Software is hard, blockchain is even harder because it NEEDS TO BE SECURE. No MVP releases. We cannot even have roadmap deadlines and skimp on quality. Where we are now though is: Rell language finished so much that developers can write apps and see its magic. We have external devs doing dapps. We have the first phase of mainnet. We have a series of releases coming up. We will release mainnet when it is secure enough, and gradual roll out. I think quite soon, development is going great at the moment, a bit quicker than we though.
Why doesn’t Chromia transactions use gas? How do you power transactions then?
Main feature of gas in Ethereum is to pay for transactions for miners get rewards. In our scenario Providers get rewards from dapp owners. So dapp owner pays for storing their dapp. It’s like Amazon Web Service model. Then dapp owner can monetize it in its own way.
Many developers don’t know RELL, just Solidity and SQL. Is this a barrier or threat to Chromia? Why RELL is better?
Henrik Hjelte,
Very few developers know Solidity. Do a search on github. I referred previously to stackoverflow programming language survey results.
If you know SQL, you learn Rell in a day.
SQL is the top 3 language here. I’d say there are millions that can easily jump to Rell.
Soldity or other blockchains, not on top 20 list even.
Rell is a hipper, nicer version of SQL that is also a “normal” programming language.
Developers like to learn new things, new languages. Otherwise we would be stuck with PHP, the DOMINANT language. Well, is it still? Seems javascript and react.js and node etc is taking over…
Moh (Binance Angel)🇳🇬,
This brings us to the end of the AMA. It’s been a pleasure being with all of you, THANK YOU. Special shout out to u/sergelubkin and u/henrik_hjelte for honouring us with their presence today❤️
Kindly follow CHROMIA on twitter and join the conversation with their community on Telegram
Official Chromia Nigeria Community Channel 🇳🇬 :
submitted by dam30 to Teamchromia [link] [comments]

Things to think about / check when selecting a broker or exchange.

I'm, again, in the process of changing my default brokeexchange.
Sorry for starters, this is not always the most easy process and you can easily end up with something that is not the 'cheapest' solution to an outright disaster if you find out your fiat or Bitcoin is effective locked.
I can't give the simple answer what to use, it greatly depends on your situation; laws, tax, jurisdiction, trader or investor, etc.
These are the basic things you should check to prevent unpleasant surprises:
Don't leave your coins on an exchange/broker unless you are a trader.
What info is needed to open a account:
Nowadays opening an account should be quite fast and straightforward ID (name, adress) will be needed, email verification, bank account verification (deposit a small amount). These basic steps can mostly be done within an hour.
A basic account will most likely have a limit on what you can do. This is both limited in the amount of fiat you can deposit and withdraw, but also on the amount of Bitcoin you can buy, sell and move.
If wanted/needed check what is needed to upgrade your account to be able to handle the amount you want to, and what timing is involved.
How can you send money to your brokeexchange, are there cost involved, do they have a cooling down period (a time you can't spend your deposited fiat), how long does the transfer take, what are your limits (how much can you deposit and what is the minimum). To deposit, using money transfer or Ideal etc shouldn't cost you anything. Check if your deposits are on a independent account, like a trust, so in case the brokeexchange goes bankrupt your deposit don't disappear in the bankruptcy.
What costs are involved buying Bitcoin? Can you transfer directly to your private wallet or not?
If they send Bitcoin to your private wallet it's the fastest most save way since it involves little time and you don't have your fiat parked in an account for some time. Check all costs involved; commission, the fees for the transaction etc., and how they determine the price of a Bitcoin.
Check if there is a cooling down period, mostly for new accounts, where they hold your coins before actually sending it to your wallet.
For selling Bitcoin the same goes: Can you send your Bitcoin to an adress and will they deposit to your bank account. What time, costs and limits are involved? What will your bank do if a big amount is deposited, check it! If you want to sell Bitcoins you have do they demand proof where these came from what proof do they need?
If they don't send your coins directly to your wallet or if you first have to deposit your Bitcoin in their wallet to be able to sell it becomes a bit more complex. What commission do the charge?
Will they send your bought Bitcoin directly to your private wallet, is there a time lock? If not and coins are put inside their controled wallet, how are the fees set if you want to send them to your privatewallet? Can you change it or is there some algorithm they use, if so can you see what fees are used before you make the transaction? As always there will be a balance between cost and timing so it is good if you could decide on those. How much timing is involved, a waiting or cool down period, does those change if you send different amounts...
Important but hard to find out:
How is their costumer service! Getting on board is one, but getting help when there is an issue or proactive involvement if things change is way more important.
Here is where I found the biggest issues. Don't be surprised if governments change regulations but you will have to find out only when you try to make a transaction that the verification process changed and you need to take action before you can do something. Not nice if you want to buy the dip sell the top!
Haha see the response I just received on the question what fees are selected if I send my Bitcoin from their wallet to mine (emphasize is mine): "The blockchain fee is unfortunately not adjustable, THE FEE IS CALCULATED BY THE MINERS WHO VALIDATE THE TRANSACTION. "
An official email response from a 'professional' cc company, OMG (face palm)....
Yes they send mails but for some reason not to you, bla bla... They are sorry but can't help you, bla bla.
Time to move on to the next brokeexchange....
I'm now on the process of having two different brokers/exchanges just to reduce my chances for such problems.
It's a lot of work and thinking ahead. But that's one of the prices to be paid for being your own bank.
Good or bad experiences / companies are more than welcome....
submitted by Btcyoda to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Introduction Thread + Plans for the future!

Hey everyone! Welcome to the ABCmint (Or ABC, or Abcardo) subreddit! Please feel free to introduce yourselves below. I wrote a few questions to get the creative juices flowing.
Quick intro here: I'm u/seekingomega, and I've been mining ABCmint for roughly 2 years now (give or take).
On my ABC journey, I've made a few YouTube videos about the project, created a (pretty crappy) block explorer, and have had the pleasure of meeting others who have an interest in PQC blockchains as well.
To answer my own questions...
Plans for the future: I'll start scouring the web for ABC related news that pops up, and share them on this subreddit.
Additionally, I'd like to add some good PQC readings. If you have articles or books, please share them in a comment!
submitted by seekingomega to ABCMint [link] [comments]

[Part - 31] Large college ebooks/eTextbooks thread for cheap rates [$4 to $25]

  1. American Government and Politics Today 2017-2018 Edition: The Essentials
  2. Algorithmic diagnosis of signs and symptoms
  3. American English Idiomatic Expressions part 2: English idioms and Phrases with
  4. ABC's of Relationship Selling through Service 12th edition
  5. Auditing & Assurance Services 7th Edition by Louwers
  6. AIDS: The Biological Basis 6th Edition
  7. Advertising: Concept and Copy 3E
  8. Analyzing Text and Discourse: Eight Approaches for the Social Sciences
  9. A Few Lessons for Investors and Managers From Warren Buffett – Peter Bevelin
  10. Applied Logistic Regression 3rd Edition
  11. American History: Connecting with the Past Volume 2 From 1865 15th Edition
  12. Accidental Orientalists: Modern Italian Travelers in Ottoman Lands
  13. Accounting for Non Specialists 7th Australian Edition - Test Bank
  14. Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach 5th Canadian Edition
  15. American Politics Today Essentials 6th Edition
  16. Adobe Photoshop CC Classroom in a book 2017 release
  17. A+ Guide to IT Technical Support 9th Edition
  18. Armstrong's Handbook of Strategic Human Resource Management
  19. Applied State Estimation and Association
  20. Ageing and Pension Reform Around the World, Evidence from Eleven Countries
  21. A2-Level Maths for Edexcel - Core 4
  22. Adobe After Effects CC Classroom in a Book (2018 release
  23. An Introduction to Interdisciplinary Research: Theory and Practice
  24. A Companion to the Anthropology of Education 2016 version
  25. Art History 6th Edition by Marilyn Stokstad
  26. Archaeology Essentials: Theories, Methods, and Practice 3rd Edition
  27. Air Pollution Control Engineering 3rd Edition
  28. A Brief Guide to Writing from Readings 7th Edition
  29. Ayurvedic Tongue Diagnosis
  30. An Introduction to Geosynthetic Engineering - Sanjay Kumar Shukla
  31. A History of England, Volume 2
  32. A Short Course in Medical Terminology 3rd Edition
  33. Algebra and Trigonometry 10th Edition
  34. Acqua Alta: A Commissario Guido Brunetti Mystery (Commissario Brunetti Book 5)
  35. A Wellness Way of Life 11th Edition
  36. A Concise Introduction to Logic 13th Edition
  37. Amman Gulf Capital Identity and Contemporary Megaprojects
  38. American History: Connecting with the Past 15th edition
  39. A History of Infamy - Crime, Truth, and Justice in Mexico
  40. A Quick Reference to Business Analysis
  41. Applied Computational Aerodynamics: A Modern Engineering Approach
  42. An Introduction to Six Sigma and Process Improvement 2nd Edition
  43. A Guide tO SQL 9th Edition
  44. A-Level Business_ AQA Year 1 & 2 Complete Revision & Practice (CGP A-Level Business) - CGP Books
  45. Abnormal Psychology 8th Edition by Thomas Olttmans
  46. A Guide to MySQL (Sam 2010 Compatible Products)
  47. Alcoholism and the family a guide to treatment and prevention 2nd Edition
  48. Auditing and Assurance Services: Understanding the Integrated Audit
  49. Anatomy: An Essential Textbook - Latin Nomenclature
  50. Advanced Problems in Physical Chemistry For Competitive Examinations
  51. Acupuncture: An Anatomical Approach 2nd edition
  52. A Phonetics Workbook for Students: Building a Foundation for Transcription – Heidi
  53. Art-Museums - International Relations where we Least Expect IT
  54. An Introduction to Business Ethics 5th edition
  55. Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Atlas
  56. An Introduction to Project Management 6th Edition by Kathy Schwalbe
  57. A Concise Introduction to World Religion, 3rd Edition
  58. A Small Person Far Away
  59. Applied Statistics for Engineers and Physical Scientists 3rd Editio
  60. Applied Mineral Inventory Estimation
  61. Aging and The Life Course: An Introduction to Social Gerontology 6th Edition
  62. Analytics and Decision Support in Health Care Operations Management 3rd Edition
  63. Atlas of Anatomy, Latin Nomenclature 3rd Edition by Anne M Gilroy
  64. AQA GCSE Maths Higher Student Book
  65. Accounting Information Systems 8th Edition by James A. Hall
  66. Anthills of the Savannah
  67. Applied Statistics Using Stata: A Guide for the Social Sciences
  68. Analyzing Syntaxt: A Lexical-Fungtional Approach
  69. An Introduction To Law and Economics 5th Edition
  70. Art in Indonesia
  71. An Introduction to Drugs and the Neuroscience of Behavior
  72. Adult Development and Aging 8th Edition by John C. Cavanaugh
  73. A First Course in Probability 9th Edition
  74. A2-Level Maths Complete Revision & Practice - CGP Books
  75. A New History of Animation
  76. Administrative Law for Public Managers 2nd Edition
  77. ASTD Handbook for Workplace Learning Professionals- Elaine Biech
  78. Aphasia Rehabilitation Clinical Challenges
  79. Alloying: Understanding the Basics
  80. Advertising: An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective 3rd Edition
  81. An Islandwide Struggle for Freedom
  82. American Jesus. How the Son of God Became a National Icon
  83. Accounting for Decision Making and Control 9th Edition
  84. Atlas of Anatomy 3rd Edition
  85. Admission Assessment Exam Review: HESI 4th Edition
  86. A2-Level Maths for Edexcel - Core 3 Student Book
  87. American Social Welfare Policy: A Pluralist Approach 7th Edition
  88. Advanced Practice Nursing: Essentials for Role Development 3rd Edition
  89. Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions
  90. Advancing Your Career: Concepts of Professional Nursing 5th Edition
  91. Accounting for Non Specialists 7th Australian Edition
  92. American Politics Today Essentials 5th Edition
  93. Atkins' Physical Chemistry 11th Edition by Peter Atkins
  94. Against Individualism: A Confucian Rethinking of the Foundations of Morality, Politics, Family and Religion
  95. Advertising & IMC: Principles and Practice 10th Edition
  96. Aging and Older Adulthood 3rd Edition
  97. American Drama 1945 - 2000. An Introduction
  98. A Regional Geography of the United States and Canada Toward a Sustainable Future
  99. Anatomy & Physiology 6th Edition by Elaine N. Marieb
  100. A Force So Swift
  101. Android Programming for Beginners by John Horton
  102. Assessment of Communication Disorders in Adults
  103. Animal Rights Human Rights: Entanglements of Oppression and Liberation
  104. American Corrections 10th Edition
  105. Android Programming for Developers
  106. Advanced Engine Performance Diagnosis 6th Edition by James D. Halderman
  107. A History of Western Society Since 1300 11th Edition
  108. An Introduction to Management Science: Quantitative Approaches to Decision Making14th Edition
  109. Australian Intellectual Property Commentary Law and Practice 2nd Edition
  110. A Creative Approach to Music Fundamentals 11th Edition
  111. Advanced Screenwriting Raising Your Script to the Academy Award Level
  112. Arduino Project Handbook_ 25 Practical Projects to Get You Started - Mark Geddes
  113. A Dictionary of Science (Oxford - Jonathan Law
  114. And Then You're Dead: What Really Happens If You Get Swallowed by a Whale, Are Shot from a Cannon, or Go Barreling over Niagara
  115. America and its peoples: a mosaic in the making 4th Edition
  116. Analysis of Algorithms: An Active Learning Approach 2nd edition
  117. Adult Development and Aging: Biopsychosocial Perspectives, 5th Edition
  118. Auditing and Assurance Services 16th Edition
  119. An Introduction to the Human Services 8th Edition
  120. Animals and the Moral Community
  121. A Guide to Genetic Counseling 2nd Edition
  122. Arguing for Our Lives
  123. Analysis: With An Introduction to Proof 5th Edition
  124. Analysis: with an Introduction to Proof 5th Edition Solution Manual
  125. Art of Problem Solving Introduction to Algebra Textbook and Solutions Manual 2-Book Set
  126. Approaches to Early Childhood Education 6th Edition
  127. An Introduction to Moral Philosophy by Jonathan Wolff
  128. An introduction to formal languages and automata, 6th Edition
  129. Applying Career Development Theory to Counseling 6th Edition
  130. Abnormal psychology: neuroscience perspectives on human experience 2nd Edition
  131. Aircraft Propulsion and Gas Turbine Engines 2nd Edition
  132. An Introduction to Human Services: Policy and Practice 8th Edition
  133. Aspen Handbook for Legal Writers: A Practical Reference 4th Edition
  134. Armstrong's Handbook of Performance Management 6th Edition
  135. Americanah
  136. An Introduction to Brain and Behavior 5th Edition
  137. Abnormal Psychology: The Science and Treatment of Psychological Disorders 13th Edition
  138. Algebra for College Students 8th Edition
  139. Analysis of Electromagnetic Fields and Wave
  140. Adaptation in Metapopulations: How Interaction Changes Evolution
  141. African American Psychology: From Africa to America 3rd Edition
  142. A Collection of Ranter Writings
  143. A Good Country by Laleh Khadivi
  144. A History of the Roman People 6th Edition
  145. A Guide to Qualitative Field Research 2nd Edition
  146. A Comprehensive Guide to Daoist Nei Gong
  147. Algebra with trigonometry for college students 2nd Edition
  148. Advanced Accounting 12th Edition by Paul M. Fischer
  149. ADempiere 3.4 ERP Solutions
  150. Assessment, Measurement, and Prediction for Personnel Decisions, 2nd Edition
  151. AO Principles of Fracture Management 3rd Edition Volume 1 & 2
  152. ASP Safety Fundamentals Exam Secrets Study Guide: ASP Test Review for the Associate Safety Professional Exam
  153. A First Course in Differential Equation with Modeling Applications 11th Edition
  154. An Invitation to Health: The Power of Now Dianne Hales 17th Edition
  155. Arias Practical Guide to High Risk Pregnancy and Delivery 4th Edition
  156. A+ Guide to Hardware 9th Edition
  157. A Dictionary of Biology 7th Edition
  158. Autodesk Maya 2018: Basics Guide
  159. Accounting for Governmental & Nonprofit Entities 17th Edition
  160. An Introduction to the Profession of Social Work 6th Edition
  161. Absolute Java (Global Edition)
  162. A Cultural History of Food in the Medieval Age
  163. Always by Your Side by Gaynor Carrillo
  164. Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes 4th Edition
  165. Abernathy's Surgical Secrets 7th Edition
  166. An Invitation to Environmental Sociology 5th Edition
  167. Abnormal Psychology in a Changing World, 9th Edition
  168. Applied Longitudinal data analysis : modeling change and event occurrence
  169. An Introduction to Management Science: Quantitative Approaches to Decision Making 15th Edition
  170. Audio Power Amplifier Design 6th Edition
  171. Attention in a Social World
  172. Animal Behavior 11th edition
  173. Accounting Information Systems 13th Edition
  174. Alternating Projection Methods
  175. Advances in Accounting Behavioral Research - Volume 17
  176. Anatomy and Physiology: An Integrative Approach 3rd Edition
  177. A Place to Stand
  178. A Study Guide for Kate Chopin's "Story of an Hour"
  179. Authority and enterprise among the peoples of South Sulawesi : introduction – Roger
  180. Advancing Vocabulary Skills 3rd Edition
  181. Anatomy: A Photographic Atlas 8th Edition
  182. Adolescence 11th Edition
  183. Advanced Pediatric Assessment 2nd Edition
  184. Agile project management quickstart guide a simplified beginners guide to agile project Management
  185. An Introduction to Group Work Practice 8th Edition
  186. A Dialogue on Personal Identity and Immortality
  187. A Framework for Human Resource Management 7th Edition
  188. Accounting Information Systems, Global Edition, 14th Edition
  189. Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods 5th Edition
  190. Atlantic Africa and the Spanish Caribbean, 1570-1640 – David Wheat
  191. ACSM’s Exercise is MedicineTM: A Clinician’s Guide to Exercise Prescription
  192. AO Manual of Fracture Management: Internal Fixators: Concepts and Cases using LCP/LISS – Michael Wagner
  193. An Emotionally Focused Workbook for Couples: The Two of Us
  194. A Man and His Presidents: The Political Odyssey of William F. Buckley Jr
  195. Adobe LiveCycle Designer 2nd Edition
  196. A Temporary Gift by Asmaa Hussein
  197. A Novel Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model
  198. American College Slang for International Students
  199. Applying Political Theory: Issues and Debates 2nd Edition
  200. A Study Guide for Khaled Hosseini's "A Thousand Splendid Suns"
  201. Accessible American History: Connecting the Past to the Present 2nd Edition
  202. Algae-Based Biopharmaceuticals
  203. America’s History, Volume 2, 8th Edition
  204. Assessment for Reading Instruction, 3rd Edition
  205. America in European Consciousness, 1493-1750
  206. AS-Level Maths for Edexcel - Core 2 Student Book
  207. A History of Asia 7th Edition
  208. A Framework for Marketing Management 6th Edition
  209. Australian Political Institutions 10th Edition
  210. Artificial Intelligence: A Guide to Intelligent Systems 3rd Edition
  211. Absolute C++ 6th Edition by Walter Savitch
  212. Adult Learning: Linking Theory and Practice
  213. Advanced Practice Nursing: An Integrative Approach 5th Edition
  214. Analysing English Sentences 2nd Edition
  215. A2-Level Maths for Edexcel - Statistics 2 Student Book
  216. Attract, Engage & Retain Top Talent.50 Plus One Strategies
  217. Applied Mathematics for the Managerial, Life, and Social Sciences 7th Edition
  218. Activities, Games, and Assessment Strategies for the Foreign Language Classroom
  219. A Grammar of the Film - An Analysis of Film Technique
  220. A Practical Approach to Criminal Procedure 15th Edition
  221. Anatomy and Physiology: An Integrative Approach 2nd Edition
  222. Automotive Chassis Systems 7th Edition
  223. A History of European Literature: The West and the World from Antiquity to the Present
  224. American Government: Stories of a Nation
  225. Autocad Civil 3D 2010 Procedures and Application
  226. A History of Modern Psychology 11th Edition
  227. Aging in the Right Place
  228. Australian Intellectual Property Law 3rd Edition
  229. AS-Level Maths for Edexcel - Core 1
  230. ARE Secrets Study Guide: ARE Exam Review for the Architect Registration Examination
  231. Advanced Infrastructure Penetration Techniques
  232. Android Application Development Cookbook
  233. A World of Art, 8th Edition
  234. American Revolution Considered as a Social Movement
  235. A Lawyer Writes: A Practical Guide to Legal Analysis, 2nd Edition
  236. An Introduction to Environmental Sociology
  237. A Cultural History of Early Modern English Cryptography Manuals
  238. Applied Engineering Economics Using Excel by Merwan Mehta
  239. Advancing Your Career: Concepts of Professional Nursing 6th Edition
  240. An Architectural survey of Temples of Kerala – H. Sarkar
  241. Accident Investigation Techniques, 2nd Edition
  242. American Conservatism History: Theory and Practice
  243. Anti-pluralism: the real populist threat to liberal democracy
  244. Anthropology: The Human Challenge 15th Edition
  245. An Alternative History of Bicycles and Motorcycles: Two-Wheeled Transportation and Material Culture
  246. Adult Health Nursing 8th Edition
  247. Assessment in Counseling Procedures and Practices, 6th Edition
  248. Augmentative and Alternative Communication - Supporting Children and Adults with Complex Communication Needs 4th Edition
  249. ASTRO 3: Introductory Astronomy
  250. A Short Course in Photography: Digital 3rd Edition
  251. Advanced Accounting 13th Edition by Joe Ben Hoyle
  252. Abnormal Psychology, 10th Edition by Ronald J. Comer
  253. A modern epidemic: expert perspectives on obesity and diabetes - Amanda Sainsbury
  254. Automotive Vehicle Fire Analysis
  255. A Job to Love - The School of Life
  256. American Heathens: religion, race, and reconstruction in California – Joshua
  257. Applied Information Security: A Hands-on Guide to Information Security Software 2nd Edition
  258. Advanced Practice Nursing in the Care of Older Adults
  259. A+ Guide to Software 9th Edition
  260. Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function 7th Edition
  261. Acupuncture and Moxibustion - A Clinical Desk Reference
  262. A Visual Guide to Stata Graphics 3rd Edition
  263. A History of Modern Psychology, 4th Edition
  264. A New Reference Grammar of Mode 5th Edition
  265. Aphrodisiacs: The Science and the Myth - Taberner, Peter V.
  266. Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nursing, 2nd Edition
  267. A History of the World’s Religions 13th Edition
  268. A key to Whiteheads Process and reality
  269. Abnormal Psychology 17th Edition by James N. Butcher
  270. Aristophanes: Women at the Thesmophoria. Frogs
  271. Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Behavior: Psychological Research Perspectives 2nd Edition
  272. Applied Mechanics with solidworks by Godfrey Onwubolu
  273. An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems 2E
  274. ACSM's Exercise Management for Persons with Chronic Disease and Disabilities 4th Edition
  275. Art History Volume II 6th Edition
  276. Applied Survey Sampling
  277. A Process Theory of Organization
  278. A Practical Guide to Contemporary Pharmacy Practice and Compounding 4th Edition
  279. Anglicizing America
  280. Ability Profiling and School Failure - One Chid's Struggle to be Seen as Competent 2nd Edition
  281. Art: A Brief History 6th Edition
  282. A Critical Approach to Human Growth and Development
  283. An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community 9th Edition
  284. An Introduction to Policing 8th Edition
  285. American Government and Politics Today 2017-2018 Edition
  286. Adolescence 10th Edition
  287. Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Cultural Approach 6th Edition
  288. ATI TEAS Secrets Study Guide 6th Edition
  289. An Introduction to Behavioral Endocrinology, 5th Edition
  290. Atkinson and Hilgard’s Introduction to Psychology
  291. Art Law : A concise guide for artists, curators and art educators by Micheal E. Jones 2016 edition
  292. America, Past and Present Volume 1 10th Edition
  293. A Dictionary of Zoology
  294. A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development 8th Edition
  295. A Journey Around Our America
  296. Adaptable Interventions for Counseling Concerns - A step-by-step Clinical Workbook
submitted by TailExpert to CollegeTextbook [link] [comments]

Technical: More channel mechanisms!

This is a followup of my older post about the history of payment channel mechanisms.
The "modern" payment channel system is Lightning Network, which uses bidirectional indefinite-lifetime channels, using HTLCs to trustlessly route through the network.
However, at least one other payment channel mechanism was developed at roughly the same time as Lightning, and there are also further proposals that are intended to replace the core payment channel mechanism in use by Lightning.
Now, in principle, the "magic" of Lightning lies in combining two ingredients:
  1. Offchain updateable systems.
  2. HTLCs to implement atomic cross-system swaps.
We can replace the exact mechanism implementing an offchain updateable system. Secondly we can replace the use of HTLCs with another atomic cross-system swap, which is what we would do when we eventually switch to payment points and scalars from payment hashes and preimages.
So let's clarify what I'll be discussing here:
Now I might use "we" here to refer to what "we" did to the design of Bitcoin, but it is only because "we" are all Satoshi, except for Craig Steven Wright.
So, let's present the other payment channel mechanisms. But first, a digression.

Digression: the new nSequence and OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY

The new relative-timelock semantics of nSequence.
Last time we used nSequence, we had the unfortunate problem that it would be easy to rip off people by offering a higher miner fee for older state where we own more funds, then convince the other side of the channel to give us goods in exchange for a new state with tiny miner fees, then publish both the old state and the new state, then taunt the miners with "so which state is gonna earn you more fees huh huh huh?".
This problem, originally failed by Satoshi, was such a massive facepalm that, in honor of miners doing the economically-rational thing in the face of developer and user demands when given a non-final nSequence, we decided to use nSequence as a flag for the opt-in replace-by-fee.
Basically, under opt-in replace-by-fee, if a transaction had an nSequence that was not 0xFFFFFFFF or 0xFFFFFFFE, then it was opt-in RBF (BIP125). Because you'd totally abuse nSequence to bribe miners in order to steal money from your bartender, especially if your bartender is not a werebear.
Of course, using a 4-byte field for a one-bit flag (to opt-in to RBF or not) was a massive waste of space, so when people started proposing relative locktimes, the nSequence field was repurposed.
Basically, in Bitcoin as of the time of this writing (early 2020) if nSequence is less than 0x80000000 it can be interpreted as a relative timelock. I'll spare you the details here, BIP68 has them, but basically nSequence can indicate (much like nLockTime) either a "real world" relative lock time (i.e. the output must have been confirmed for X seconds before it can be spent using a transaction with a non-zero nSequence) or the actual real world, which is measured in blocks (i.e. the output must have been confirmed for N blocks before it can be spent using a transaction with a non-zero nSequence). Of course, this is the Bitcoin universe and "seconds" is a merely human delusion, so we will use blocks exclusively.
And similarly to OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY, we also added OP_CHECKSEQUENCEVERIFY in BIP112. This ensures that the nSequence field is a relative-locktime (i.e. less than 0x80000000) and that it is the specified type (block-based or seconds-based) and that it is equal or higher to the specified minimum relative locktime.
It is important to mention the new, modern meaning of nSequence, because it is central to many of the modern payment channel mechanisms, including Lightning Poon-Dryja.
Lessons learned?

Decker-Wattenhofer "Duplex Micropayment Channels"

Mechanisms-within-mechanisms for a punishment-free bidirectional indefinite-lifetime payment channel.
The Decker-Wattenhofer paper was published in 2015, but the Poon-Dryja "Lightning Network" paper was published in 2016. However, the Decker-Wattenhofer paper mentions the Lightning mechanism, specifically mentioning the need to store every old revocation key (i.e. the problem I mentioned last time that was solved using RustyReddit shachains). Maybe Poon-Dryja presented the Lightning Network before making a final published paper in 2016, or something. Either that or cdecker is the Bitcoin time traveler.
It's a little hard to get an online copy now, but as of late 2019 this seems to work: copy
Now the interesting bit is that Decker-Wattenhofer achieves its goals by combining multiple mechanisms that are, by themselves, workable payment channel mechanisms already, except each has some massive drawbacks. By combining them, we can minimize the drawbacks.
So let's go through the individual pieces.

Indefinite-lifetime Spilman channels

As mentioned before, Spilman channels have the drawback that they have a limited lifetime: the lock time indicated in the backoff transaction or backoff branch of the script. However, instead of an absolute lock time, we can use a relative locktime.
In order to do so, we use a "kickoff" transaction, between the backoff transaction and the funding transaction. Our opening ritual goes this way, between you and our gender-neutral bartender-bancho werebear:
  1. First, you compute the txid for the funding transaction and the kickoff transaction. The funding transaction takes some of your funds and puts it into a 2-of-2 between you and the bartender, and the kickoff is a 1-input 1-output transaction that spends the funding transaction and outputs to another 2-of-2 between you and the bartender.
  2. Then, you generate the backoff transaction, which spends the kickoff transaction and returns all the funds to you. The backoff has a non-zero nSequence, indicating a delay of a number of blocks agreed between you, which is a security/convenience tradeoff parameter
  3. You sign the backoff transaction, then send it to the bartender.
  4. The bartender signs the backoff, and gives back the fully-signed transaction to you.
  5. You sign the kickoff transaction, then send it to the bartender.
  6. The bartender signs the kickoff, and gives it back to you fully signed.
  7. You sign and broadcast the funding transaction, and both of you wait for the funding transaction to be deeply confirmed.
The above setup assumes you're using SegWit, because transaction malleability fix.
At any time, either you or the bartender can broadcast the kickoff transaction, and once that is done, this indicates closure of the channel. You do this if you have drunk enough alcoholic beverages, or the bartender could do this when he or she is closing the bar.
Now, to get your drinks, you do:
  1. Sign a transaction spending the kickoff, and adding more funds to the bartender, to buy a drink. This transaction is not encumbered with an nSequence.
  2. Hand the signed transaction to the bartender, who provides you with your next drink.
The channel is closed by publishing the kickoff transaction. Both of you have a fully-signed copy of the kickoff, so either of you can initiate the close.
On closure (publication and confirmation of the kickoff transaction), there are two cases:
  1. You fail to pick up any chicks at the bar (I prefer female humans of optimum reproductive age myself rather than nestling birds, but hey, you do you) so you didn't actually spend for drinks at all. In this case, the bartender is not holding any transactions that can spend the kickoff transaction. You wait for the agreed-upon delay after the kickoff is confirmed, and then publish the backoff transaction and get back all the funds that you didn't spend.
  2. You spend all your money on chicks and end up having to be kicked into a cab to get back to your domicile, because even juvenile birds can out-drink you, you pushover. The bartender then uses the latest transaction you gave (the one that gives the most money to him or her --- it would be foolish of him or her to use an earlier version with less money!), signs it, and broadcasts it to get his or her share of the money from the kickoff transaction.

Decrementing nSequence channels

Enforcing order by reducing relative locktimes.
I believe this to be novel to the Decker-Wattenhofer mechanism, though I might be missing some predecessor.
This again uses the new relative-locktime meaning of nSequence. As such, it also uses a kickoff transaction like the above indefinite-lifetime Spilman channel. Set up is very similar to the setup of the above indefinite-lifetime Spilman channel, except that because this is bidirectional, we can actually have both sides put money into the initial starting backoff transaction.
We also rename the "backoff" transaction to "state" transaction. Basically, the state transaction indicates how the money in the channel is divided up between the two participants. The "backoff" we sign during the funding ritual is now the first state transaction. Both sides keep track of the current state transaction (which is initialized to the first state transaction on channel establishment).
Finally, the starting nSequence of the first state transaction is very large (usually in the dozens or low hundreds of blocks).
Suppose one participant wants to pay the other. The ritual done is then:
  1. A new version of the current state transaction is created with more money in the payee side.
  2. This new version has nSequence that is one block lower than the current state transaction (in practice it should be a few blocks lower, not just one, because sometimes miners find blocks in quick succession).
  3. Both sides exchange signatures for the new state transaction.
  4. Both sides set the new state transaction as the current state transaction that will be the basis for the next payment.
When the channel is closed by publication of the kickoff transaction, then the transaction with the lowest nSequence becomes valid earlier than the other state transactions. This is enough to enforce that the most recent state transaction (the one with the lowest nSequence, and thus the first to become valid) is published.


Combining the ingredients of the Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels concoction.
Of note is that we can "chain" these mechanisms together in such a way that we strengthen their strengths while covering their weaknesses.
A note is that both the indefinite-lifetime nSequence Spilman variant, and the above decrementing nSequence mechanism, both have "kickoff" transactions.
However, when we chain the two mechanisms together, it turns out that the final transaction of one mechanism also serves as the kickoff of the next mechanism in the chain.
So for example, let's chain two of those decrementing nSequence channels together. Let's make them 144 blocks maximum delay each, and decrement in units of 4 blocks, so each of the chained mechanisms can do 37 updates each.
We start up a new channel with the following transactions:
  1. A funding transaction paying to a 2-of-2, confirmed deeply onchain. All other transactions are offchain until closure.
  2. A kickoff transaction spending the funding transaction output, paying to a 2-of-2.
  3. A "stage 1" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the kickoff, with current nSequence 144, paying to a 2-of-2.
  4. A "stage 2" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the stage 1, with current nSequence 144, paying to the initial state of the channel.
When we update this channel, we first update the "stage 2" state transaction, replacing it with an nSequence lower by 4 blocks. So after one update our transactions are:
  1. A funding transaction paying to a 2-of-2, confirmed deeply onchain. All other transactions are offchain until closure.
  2. A kickoff transaction spending the funding transaction output, paying to a 2-of-2.
  3. A "stage 1" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the kickoff, with current nSequence 144, paying to a 2-of-2.
  4. A "stage 2" decrementing nSequence state transaction, spending the stage 1, with current nSequence 140, paying to the second state of the channel.
The first 3 transactions are the same, only the last one is replaced with a state transaction with lower `nSequence.
Things become interesting when we reach the "stage 2" having nSequence 0. On the next update, we create a new "stage 1", with an nSequence that is 4 lower, and "reset" the "stage 2" back to an nSequence of 144.
This is safe because even though we have a "stage 2" with shorter nSequence, that stage 2 spends a stage 1 with an nSequence of 144, and the stage 1 with nSequence of 140 would beat it to the blockchain first.
This results in us having, not 36 + 36 updates, but instead 36 * 36 updates (1296 updates). 1296 updates is still kinda piddling, but that's much better than just a single-stage decrementing nSequence channel.
The number of stages can be extended indefinitely, and your only drawback would be the amount of blockchain space you'd spend for a unilateral close. Mutual cooperative closes can always shortcut the entire stack of staged transactions and cut it to a single mutual cooperative close transaction.
But that's not all! You might be wondering about the term "duplex" in the name "Duplex Micropayment Channels".
That's because the last decrementing nSequence stage does not hold the money of the participants directly. Instead, the last stage holds two indefinite-lifetime Spilman channels. As you might remember, Spilman channels are unidirectional, so the two Spilman channels represent both directions of the channel. Thus, duplex.
Let's go back to you and your favorite werebear bartender. If you were using a Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channel, you'd have several stages of decrementing nSequence, terminated in two Spilman channels, a you-to-bartender channel and a bartender-to-you channel.
Suppose that, while drinking, the bartender offers you a rebate on each drink if you do some particular service for him or her. Let us not discuss what service this is and leave it to your imagination. So you pay for a drink, decide you want to get the rebate, and perform a service that the bartender finds enjoyable. So you transfer some funds on the you-to-bartender direction, and then later the bartender transfers some funds in the bartender-to-you channel after greatly enjoying your service.
Suppose you now exhaust the you-to-bartender direction. However, you note that the rebates you've earned are enough to buy a few more drinks. What you do instead is to update the staged decrementing nSequence mechanisms, and recreate the two Spilman directions such that the you-to-bartender direction contains all your current funds and the bartender-to-you direction contains all the bartender's funds. With this, you are now able to spend even the money you earned from rebates. At the same time, even if the staged decrementing nSequence mechanisms only have a few hundred thousand updates, you can still extend the practical number of updates as long as you don't have to reset the Spilman channels too often.

Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer Channel Factories

Because you like channels so much, you put channels inside channels so you could pay while you pay. I N C E P T I O N
The Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels introduced the possibility of nesting a channel mechanism inside another channel mechanism. For example, it suggests nesting a decrementing-nSequence mechanism inside another decrementing-nSequence mechanism, and having as well an unlimited-lifetime Spilman channel at the end. In the Decker-Wattenhofer case, it is used to support the weakness of one mechanism with the strength of another mechanism.
One thing to note is that while the unlimited-lifetime Spilman channel variant used is inherently two-participant (there is one payer and one payee), the decrementing-nSequence channel mechanism can be multiparticipant.
Another thing of note is that nothing prevents one mechanism from hosting just one inner mechanism, just as it is perfectly fine for a Lightning Network channel to have multiple HTLCs in-flight, plus the money in your side, plus the money in the counterparty's side. As these are "just" Bitcoin-enforceable contracts, there is no fundamental difference between an HTLC, and a payment channel mechanism.
Thus the most basic idea of the Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer Channel Factories paper is simply that we can have a multiparticipant update mechanism host multiple two-party update mechanisms. The outer multiparticipant update mechanism is called a "channel factory" while the inner two-party update mechanisms are called "channels".
The exact mechanism used in the Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer paper uses several decrementing-nSequence mechanisms to implement the factory, and Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels to implement the channel layer.
However, as noted before, there is no fundamental difference between a Poon-Dryja channel and an HTLC. So it is in fact possible to have chained Decker-Wattenhofer decrementing-nSequence mechanisms to implement the factory level, while the channels are simply Poon-Dryja channels.


So this concludes for now an alternative mechanism to the classic Poon-Dryja that Lightning uses. The tradeoffs are significantly different between Decker-Wattenhofer vs Poon-Dryja:


Copyright 2020 Alan Manuel K. Gloria. Released under CC-BY.
submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Why Bitcoin was created

NOTE: Not sure if this is useful at all. I welcome corrections. This was off the top of my head, probably a lot of stuff can be made clearer.

I see many people here are not really understanding why bitcoin was created.
As a result, many are unable to answer these questions:
  1. Why bitcoin over another crypo-currency?
  2. If bitcoin is slower than CC why use it?
  3. [your-question-here]?
If you can answer "Why was Bitcoin created?" you will automatically form your own opinion on the questions above!

Wrong Question
The original question we asked is kind of the wrong question to ask. It has a simple (unsatisfying) answer:
Question: Why was Bitcoin created?
Answer: To prevent spending the same digital dollar twice.

Wait.. what? Before we understand above, let's first understand the problem with digital money...

Money: physical vs. digital
Physical money is easy. Let's say we decide to use apples as currency. If I have one apple and you have one apple, and I give you one apple, than you now have two apples and I have none.
Digital money is hard. Let's say we decide to use cat pictures as currency. If I have a picture of a cat named "sparkles.jpeg" and you have a picture of a cat named "rocket.jpeg", and I send you "sparkles.jpeg" - then you now have two pictures of a cat, but I still have one!
Similarly, if we were to represent digital dollars as information (file, record in a database or photo of a dollar), then anytime we send a dollar, we effectively create a copy of it.
Why is this a problem?

Double Spending
Suppose I have only $1 digital dollar on my hard-drive (doesn't matter how it is stored - it can be a file called "Wallet.txt" with a single entry "Me = 1").
Let's say there are two online stores: and sells tables online. sells chairs online.
The prices are as follows:
  1. Tables are $1 digital dollars each
  2. Chairs are $0.5 digital dollars each
I am now going to buy 1 table and 2 chairs (total cost $2) for only $1 dollar.
Here is how I can do this:
  1. First, I will create a copy of my wallet (where my digital dollars are stored). Let's called it "Wallet.txt.backup"
  2. Then, I will send $1 digital dollars to store and ask them to ship me 1 Table.
  3. After my order is accepted, I will immediately immediately restore my "Wallet.txt.backup" file (which still has $1 dollars in it) and...
  4. Send $1 digital dollars to and order 2 chairs.

Since doesn't know about (they don't have direct communication channel), they will both ship me the goods.
I have now spent the same dollar twice. I have double spent my dollar.

Banks solve Double Spending
There is a very simple (and elegant) solution to this problem. Instead of letting everyone keep track of their own Wallet.txt file, let one person do it and send all transactions through them.
Let's say that now we have to send every transaction through Mr. Knab. So if I want to pay I don't send the digital dollar to the store directly, but instead I send my digital dollar to Mr. Knab and ask him to forward my digital dollar to
Let's see how this prevents spending the same dollar twice:
  1. Mr. Knab knows that I have $1 digital dollar to my name. He stores it in a file called "Wallet.txt".
  2. I ask Mr. Knab to send $1 digital dollar to store to order 1 Table.
  3. Mr. Knab subtracts $1 from me in "Wallet.txt" and adds it to the line that corresponds to (how he does this is irrelevant - the important thing is that he remembers how many digital dollars I have)
  4. Mr. Knab sends an email to saying "You got $1 digital dollar, please ship a Table to this guy".
  5. (Now comes me trying to cheat) After my order is accepted, I immediately ask Mr. Knab to send $1 digital dollar to to order 2 chairs.
  6. Mr. Knab checks "Wallet.txt" and sees that I have $0 digital dollars remaining and rejects my order.
I could not spend the same digital dollar twice.
In the real world "Mr. Knab" is the bank. It is an institution that stores your digital wallet to make sure you can't cheat.
Bank is a tool to prevent double spending.

The Right Question
Now that we understand the challenge with digital money (making sure you don't spend a digital dollar twice) and how the bank solves this (by storing your digital wallet for you) we can ask the proper question:
Question: Why was Bitcoin created to prevent spending the same digital dollar twice if the bank already does it?
Answer: Bitcoin prevents spending the same digital dollar twice without a bank.

Let us reiterate this point:
Bitcoin was created to prevent spending the same digital dollar twice without a bank.

Useful or Not?
Whether this property (preventing double spending without intermediaries) is a useful thing is not what we are concerned with here. Think of bitcoin as solving a challenge: hey, we can prevent double spending with a bank in between, can we do this without a bank? We leave the question whether Bitcoin is "useful" to others.

How Bitcoin solves this problem (Short version)
Bitcoin network chooses a random computer to briefly act as a bank. That computer then makes sure no dollar is spent twice. Randomly choosing computer is hard and Bitcoin solves this problem by requiring proof of work, the first to provide it will get chosen as the bank. Being chosen as a bank pays (block reward) and everyone wants to provide proof of work first. The more people compete the harder it becomes to be the bank. The harder it is to become the bank, the more secure the Bitcoin is.

How Bitcoin solves this problem (long version)

I lied. Bitcoin still has a bank. Only this bank is one of the people who participates in Bitcoin network: let's call them a person-bank. This person-bank is chosen randomly for EVERY transaction (*gross simplification*). The person-bank is responsible for verifying that the transaction is correct. Since Bitcoin network sends a copy of the Wallet.txt file to EVERY person, anyone can verify any transaction. If the person-bank verifies transaction correctly - it gets paid. Otherwise it gets nothing.

Picking random person is hard
The problem then becomes how to pick a person-bank randomly, so that you can't always have Joe being the person-bank and spending his own dollars twice.
Turns out the problem if picking a random person from a group of people is really hard to do in practice. Bitcoin solves this problem by posing a puzzle to each person - and the first person to come up with an answer gets to act as a person-bank for the next transaction.
This puzzle must be so hard, that nobody should be able to do any better on it than anybody else. It's hard to think of this in human terms, because with practice we get better at everything. However, imagine that everyone in the world got REALLY REALLY drunk and was forced to throw darts. So that no matter how much practice anyone had with darts, everyone was equally horrible. Every time anyone threw a dart it would always land randomly. Now, picking a random person is easy - pick the person who threw the dart into the middle of the board.
In Bitcoin this puzzle involves hashing and the answer to it is called proof of work. But this is all really irrelevant. What is important is that no computer can practice to get better at solving this puzzle. They are all equally drunk when it comes to the solution.
All the bitcoin computers who are trying to solve the puzzle are called miners. The winning participant gets a lot of money as a reward: currently 12.5BTC.

Security depends on puzzle complexity
If the puzzle is too easy, then someone can always solve it first (by buying a bigger computer) and approve their own invalid transaction. Bitcoin increases the difficulty of the puzzle if it takes the network less than 10 minutes to solve it. It decreases the difficulty if it takes more than 10 minutes to solve it.
If there are 1 person trying to solve a puzzle and another joins, then the difficulty will increase by two. This is because 1 person solved the puzzle every 10 minutes, so if another joins, they will solve it twice as fast (think two drunken people throwing darts instead of one - it will take half the time to hit the center).
If we have 100,000 people trying to solve a puzzle and another person joins, this will barely affect the difficulty. Alternatively, if we wanted to beat 100,000 and solve the puzzle first, we would need as much computation power as all those people combined (and a little bit more). We would need about 51% of the power of the whole bitcoin mining network.
That is why for Bitcoin to be secure, the puzzle must be hard for anyone on the planet EARTH to solve.

If bitcoin was only mined by one country, then another country could easily purchase enough computers (say 10x as many) to make sure they act as the bank every time. They could then spend the same dollar twice (for example, they could buy some tanks from another country, but then revert the money back to their wallet).
submitted by e5pK44sqszwxjEFL to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

More evidence that fair value is correct! Using a supply-corrected ranking of cryptocurrencies shows that Bitcoin Cash is hugely undervalued, just like fair value does!

EDIT: You can still view the thread in bitcoincash here, even though they shadowbanned me. I guess that sub isn't as anti-censorship as this one is...
As you can see in this chart, which comes from this thread in cc One of the most important figures is often overlooked when investing - Total Supply. See how the top 100 changes when you take Total Supply into account., there are more and more people that are beginning to question the validity of the information that coinmarketcap is presenting to us in regards to the price of our cryptocurrencies.
I've pointed this out before a couple times, like here - Wow, Big moves going on with BCH! The Fair Value of Bitcoin Cash is up 26.86% in the last month to $512, here - Do not panic about the price: Coin fair value indicates that, contrary to price, the crypto economy remains intact, and here - Further evidence that, despite what's detractors desperately want you to believe, fair value is accurately tracking the wealth in the market in real time! Monero's fair value decreases by 40% as miners leave network!.
In every post I basically make the case, convincingly I hope, that fair value is a way better metric to gauge cryptocurrency prices in general, and Bitcoin Cash's especially. As you can see back then, the fair value of BCH was much lower even though the price was roughly in the same range.
But, now you can see the fair value has grown tremendously! This indicates that more and more people have taken an interestin BCH and have invested. Which is why you shouldn't let core trolls and people from Monero say that your transactions are 'fake'.
We don't know what the proper number of daily transactions for actual use is, nor what it should be. All we can do is look at tools like fair value, which objectively input transactions, average transaction size, velocity and total discounted supply into a formula order to determine what the actual price people who own the coin are selling it for is.
When you take total supply into account it turns out that Bitcoin Cash is worth way more than CMC is telling us! BCH gets a $1 Billion dollar boost in marketcap. And that's when you take one of the metrics into account properly. Imagine what happens when you take say three or four? Well imagine no longer because fair value does exactly that!
What's more, they get rid of the useless data from exchanges by not using it at all. Which means when you see BCH's fair value at $1,164.53, with a fair value market cap of $20,829,910,793, instead of the unadjusted $5,967,793,657 you see on CMC, with a fair BTC/BCH ratio of .1693, that means you're seeing the true, total wealth in the Bitcoin Cash economy.
submitted by thethrowaccount21 to btc [link] [comments]

The elephant in the (Crypto) room: "Mining" and its energy waste

I know this post is a bit of a wall of text but hear me out. I do my best to explain my thoughts on the drawbacks of mining and why cryptos that cut out mining are so important.
"Mining" is a misnomer. To laypeople, using this term to describe the consensus mechanism for Proof of Work cryptocurrencies makes it sound like something productive and worthwhile. Who would criticize someone with the admirable and noble task of working to extract gold from the Earth? A valuable piece of metal is produced thanks to their hard work. But crypto mining is different; while it does have a purpose, it is far from productive.

So what is bitcoin mining? If you're to believe the most basic explanations offered such as from this video (, miners solve "complex math problems". I can still remember when I heard this for the first time (years ago) and even though I'm pretty mathematically inclined, I had assumed this meant that these complex math problems were actually useful and necessary to 'unlock' those bitcoins somehow, and for a long time I didn't think anything more of it. To my mind, I imagined it like there's a million problems to solve and each time you solve one you get a reward. The math problem might have been, for example, to find the next largest prime. Instead the actual problem is, at its most basic level, nonce finding. See Different coins or forks may use a different problem but the end result is the same - energy is spent solving a pointless problem ('pointless' in the sense that the actual math answer doesn't benefit anyone).

In reality bitcoin mining could be better described as "provably expending energy in exchange for lottery tickets". It's an arms race of everyone competing to waste energy. The more energy wasted, the more likely one is to win the lottery. See here for an example: I find it abhorrent that there are entire businesses (at several scales at that) set up primarily to "mine" bitcoin or other coins. I see videos like this one (Digital Gold: and think it bizarre that it's considered acceptable for businesses set up to waste energy to protect the network and that people are so sad when the market takes a turn and they have to close up shop. Your business model is to compete with other people to waste energy to earn lottery tickets that have variable value. Those who can lower their operating costs the most will be the most profitable (or with the way difficulty adjustments happen, perhaps the *only* ones profitable). A portion of the money flowing in to buy BitCoin is being used to prop up these wasteful businesses. Because it's considered normal by now people don't get outraged at this fact.

Some people who have been around crypto for years take it for granted that this type of process is necessary for security of the network, and to some extent this misunderstanding is forgivable as it is the oldest method and has worked quite well especially at small scale (not mass adoption) when the total energy expenditure was not all that high. Proof of Stake cryptos have demonstrated this is not the case (that the waste is necessary), and in particular cryptos like Nano with its Delegated Proof of Stake show potential for being just as, if not more, secure than PoW coins due to there being less centralization pressure due to having no significant incentive to trying to control more of the vote versus economies of scale pushing the small miners out of business in PoW. A big part of the reason BitCoin transactions became so expensive in Dec 2017 was that to "buy" a transaction in the BitCoin network you had to pay for a part of the combined energy wastage of the network; the other component being that you're also in a bidding war against other people determined to get their transaction included in the next block. So your transaction fee (aka 'mining fee') is you trying to outbid other people to see who gets to pay for the person wasting electricity. Imagine if each end-user scoffing at the $20+ withdraw fee on coinbase at the time actually understood what was behind that fee rather than thinking of it as a nebulous "network fee".

A quote I saw on cc that exemplifies this mindset is as follows:
"And a chain with no fees has no mechanism to pay for security. There NEED to be fees, they just need to be lower than with fiat payment systems."

So many of the BitCoin clones/forks make some attempt to mitigate this problem by, for example, increasing blocksize or changing other parameters like block times. In the end though, most of them are still based on this method of energy wastage to secure the network, aka Proof of Work.
Now if there were no more efficient method than PoW mining then it might be fair to say that its energy expenditure (comparable to the entire energy use of a small country like Belgium) is a necessary price to pay for the value provided by the unique features of the network. In other words, that the energy cost is 'worth it'. The thing is though, there *are* ways to secure a network with far less (or virtually no) energy cost and Nano provides one such case.

Does anyone else find it insane that people in this space think it's normal the energy waste that goes into so called "mining"? Do we need to re-label mining to something that better reflect its nature? Because the end user is generally not involved with the mining, I think they don't really consider the energy cost that their transactions have. And to most of these people, telling them the entire Nano network can be powered by a single wind turbine probably doesn't mean anything. Does there need to be a grassroots movement to push back against wasteful 'mining'? Laypeople concerned about the environmental impact caused by the energy wastage of cryptos often seem to be under the impression that all crypto is necessarily wasteful. How can we get people to care if at the end of the day they just pay a fee and don't get to see the impact? Nano being feeless is one of its biggest strengths but not just because it saves people using it a little bit of money; it's more the fact it cuts out the massive-scale problem of mining. This is hard to get across in a short slogan like "fast, feeless, scalable" though.
submitted by manageablemanatee to nanocurrency [link] [comments]

Analytics Terrorists

Data is today's gold (more or less)
By 2030, data collection and analysis will become the basis of all future service offerings and business models. The volume of data generated in the real estate industry is attracting international technology companies and other new market participants.
Facebook, for example, has an immense amount of power and can pay for the best infrastructure, Oculus VR, and engineers around the world. Do you know how they pay for all that? Yes you do. Not so long ago, I bet you still remember that marketeers paid fortunes on trying to get the best focus groups possible to test their shitty products, and get feedback on them.
Today there is no need for someone at the mall to offer you a 10% discount coupon to test and review a product. Today we are ridiculously far beyond that!
Do you ever wonder how Sylicon Valley became the shadow state's new girlfriend? Well, we are at a point in history where there is so much data out there, so accurate, so vast; but then, like apocalyptic horsemen, come along ways to exploit them: Namely, data mining, analytics, and machine learning. I'm sure I can think of a fourth one later so that we can make them the 4 hoursemen properly.
Let's move on and take a second to recall that today's consumer CPUs are insanely fast in processing. Our fucking phones are.
You now what comes next.....
Remember that your online presence is most of the time embedded with "contacts".... Which means, you also share your connections; hence you are a network. Not just a node.
Now let's take a look at the kind of shit (your data) you willingly (or not) share each second of your lives through your phones, wearables, and browsers:
For each of these, remember: You are a network, not a node. And you are also a dumbass. (You'll see why next)
Have you tried opening any kind of internet account lately? Yep, they ask you to link to your phone. The phone is the best place to track someone because they have different sets of identifiers such as the IMEI, and so fingerprinting is a breeze.
Now think about all the other shit you do on your phone. And if you are adventurous jump into your favorite distopic search engine and look for Ultrasonic Beacons. Here's a starting place:
2001: A Space Odyssey is a great example of how technofuturists imaged AI would be in 2001. But remember this was late 60s... and AI was already doing some pretty cool things. Except there was something missing... well it turns out that once they got a hold of neural networks, modelling and tuning, the most valuable part was kinda missing: TRAINING DATA. For these types of ML, training requires huge amounts of data, and of course actually knowing what the fuck you are doing.
Today, we've made some advancements in Machine Learning for sure, new algorithms, and more sophisticated neural networks, even generational ones. But the true reason Machine Learning is in vogue once again after the 70s is becuase we are producing so much data... Yes I'm talking about:
1) We train visual recognition with captchas
2) We train speech recognitiion with assistants.... back then speech recognition sucked because it used a small set of recordings typically recorded by the computer scientist themselves. So if they all had a certain Illinoisey accent, then you were pretty much fucked. Today, so many fat people talk to those things, asking for pizza with so many expressions, accents, pitch, speech impediments, etc, etc, etc... So this is an AI which basically can understand much more than we EVER imagined before... Musk doesn't sound so Sara Connory now does he?
3) We train marketing AI: No explanation needed
4) Behavior Analytics; Maybe I'll talk about it some other day if you are interested.
5) Yep you dirty bastards, you know it was cumming: Your porn habits... Oh yeah, they know all the shit you get off to. Oh those VPNs and TOR, of course you know they are not transparent. So good luck you perv!
So what we are doing today is producing so much data, on so many aspects of our lives, almost in realtime (why do I have to charge my phone every 5 goddamn minutes? now you know). And we can process it with even our phones, we can study the data, we can have machines study it for us and make correlations we never dreamed of. We can make social and economic predictions. We can understand what kind of manipulations work by A/B testing those predictions after doing a PsyOp, for example. We can have AI learn from our data. We have static patterns on our lives: We all eat, sleep, have sexual urges.
Analytics Terrorists
If you are finding all of this new and exciting, well shame on you, because the Chinese already stepped up they game and went all in. We all know how they like to inspire the Black Mirror writers. So let's talk a little about cyberwarefare.... and contaminating the... gold?
If data is the new gold, then data gatherers are the miners (shit this is starting to sound like Bitcoin, but please suspend that relation for now.) So we have big companies now paying people to generate data (data gatherers). Take pictures of trees, or label them (taggers)
So if we had an army of real or virtual bots, well orchestrated (yes I know all about cloud protection and shit).. we could definitely manipulate this very valuable data. So not so golden after all.
The truth is that HTTP and other network protocols are well studied by the best of breed of intelligence agencies, they know all the exploits of everything, including network protocols. Except for cryptography, it works, because it's math, not some shitty code. If this sound a bit crazy, just search for shill jobs in Fiverr.... and that's just for "consumers".
A very well orchestrated data attack (well orchestrated means Stuxnet planning level) could potentially disturb AIs, Analytics, Mining, Forecasting, and all the things that the hoursemen brought. There are for sure many technical challenges, and I sometimes wonder on how well paid and crucial Security engineers are becoming... They will be the new militar rockstars.
In a surveillance world... with so many centralized monsters studying and selling our data, we have to start thinking about how this very data could slave us, make us 99% predictable, and start thinking about privacy like personal hygene. We have to understand how basic encryption works. Have to understand that using "pa55word" as your password is like not washing your hands. We have to understand what fingerprinting is.
Data will be exploited and manipulated as part of bigger cyber attacks. Those who do it, whether from the government, activists, or just some random dude who likes to fuck with search queries... will become some kind of new terrorists or (the good guys) anarchists.
I'm honestly sorry that the future doesn't look like Blade Runner... I don't know why there are so much ponies, and spongebob memes. But the truth is that we are in a reality very similar to the one in Terminator with Skynet. Only we jack off to Skynet and tell her our deepest secrets.
So who is John Connor? And why is he starting to sound like a cyber messiah? Thank you for reading me.
I apologize for my shitty English, bad jokes, and grammar. At least I didn't use puns, fuck you Reddit.
submitted by Book-of-Saturday to C_S_T [link] [comments]

Top World Cryptocurrency Events

Blockchain sphere spread to offline for a long time ago. If you are tired of searching for crypto forums, contests and other events to visit, SwapSpace has already picked up information about the most popular huge crypto events worldwide.
We find out TOP annual events. Check out the list and just choose the most suitable one to go.
  1. Blockchain EXPO
Is Europe’s largest annual international Blockchain Conference
Blockchain EXPO is one of the largest blockchain conferences and exhibitions in Europe dedicated to the future of corporate technology.
Leading experts of blockchain industry will give presentations, case studies in the field of the latest technologies and interactive group discussions will be presented. Seminars will also be held on research in the industries that will be most affected by this new technology, including legal sector, trade and real estate, financial services, healthcare, insurance, and much more, and even art.
Thematic blocks of the event include cryptocurrency and financial services, Blockchain for enterprises, businesses, Blockchain platform and strategies, development of Blockchain apps & technologies, Blockchain seminars; as well as a zone of innovation and investors.
Within two days, the event will feature top-level content from leading world brands in the field of advanced blockchain technologies.
It is worth noting that the Blockchain EXPO event is held in collab with IoT Tech Expo, 5g, AI & Big Data Expo and Cyber ​​Security & Cloud Expo, which you can learn about several technologies at once in one place.
500+ Speakers
Among them: John Calian, Senior Vice President | Head of T-Labs & The Blockchain Group | Deutsche Telekom AG;
Andrei Bolocan, Technology Specialist Supply Chain | The HEINEKEN Company;
Arwen Smit, EMEA Lead Mobility Open Blockchain Initiative | MOBI,
Dimitri De Jonghe Co-Founder | Head of Research BigchainDB | Ocean Protocol, Michelle Chivunga Chair — International Committee The British Blockchain Association.
Next Event: 1–2 JULY | 2020 | Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  1. Blockchain Life
Blockchain Life is another one of the largest in Europe international forums dedicated to cryptocurrencies, mining and blockchain at all.
Annually, the forum becomes the largest and most significant event of the blockchain industry in Europe.
The forum brings together world leaders and those who are just starting to become interested in the industry of blockchains and cryptocurrencies. It gathers up to 6000 participants from more than 70 countries.
Blockchain Life units world industry leaders, miners, business owners, blockchain developers, investors. It is a platform not only for professionals but for beginners also.
During 3 years of its existence, the forum became an international platform for the development of hundreds industry companies, a place for meeting market leaders with government officials, for the contracts conclusion that influences the global technology development.
Forum also includes Startup contest, where you can show your project and find investors.
Among them: Felix Mago, co-founder Dash;
Roger Ver, CEO;
Xinxi Wang, manager Litecoin Foundation;
Tim Draper, venture capitalist, founder of Draper Associates, DFJ & Draper University and others.
The last event was recent, 15–17 OCTOBER | 2019 | Moscow, Russia.
Next Event: next year, somewhere in Europe.
  1. The North American Bitcoin Conference
TNABC is one of the most important crypto meetups. The conference is dedicated to a wide range of topics, in particular, blockchain technologies, ICO specifics, features of Bitcoin and Ethereum, token sale mechanisms, investment and regulation.
Over the course of two days, speakers present their reports in 20-minute slots. Among them are the world most famous speakers, including CEOs, investors, government officials.
In a spacious exhibition hall, conference participants will be able to meet and chat with representatives of the most influential companies that set the tone in the cryptocurrency sphere.
Speakers 150+ speakers, among them: Harry Yen, Managing Director Binary Financial;
Jeff Mackdonald, Co-founder NEM Foundation;
Colleen Sullivan, Partner & CEO CMT Digital;
Vitalik Buterin, Co-founder Ethereum; and others.
Next Event: 15–17 JANUARY | 2020 | USA, Miami.
  1. Next Block Conference
NEXT BLOCK is one of the most popular annual worldwide crypto events, which include various programs every year.
NEXT BLOCK ASIA 2.0 “Affiliate Marketing in the Crypto Age” will be dedicated to CRYPTO and AFFILIATE. At the event, experts will discuss synergies and prospects for 2020. In addition, you can be represented in the exhibition area, where you will have the opportunity to show yourself to young professionals and move up the career ladder.
The conference lasts one day, followed by the AW event, which will be dedicated to affiliate marketing, gambling and contracts in the Crypto era, and will include discussions leading to the mega event.
At the event, experts raise the most relevant topics and each participant can take part in solving the problem.
This is an opportunity to communicate with movers and shakers of both crypto and partner worlds.
Speakers: 500+, among them:
Neo Say Wei, Chief Executive Officer — Neo & Partners Global and RF International Holdings; Giacomo Arcaro, №1 European ICO Growth Hacker, ICO STO Advisor, University Professor;
Felix Mago, Co-Founder of Dash Thailand;
Eloisa Marchesoni, Europe n. 1 Token Model Architect;
Itay Adam Owner of Adam Tech Media and product launch campaigner.
Next Event: DECEMBER, 3 | 2020 | Bangkok, Thailand.
  1. Blockchain Live
Blockchain Live is an innovative festival of content and collaboration that brings together a fragmented ecosystem to hold meaningful discussions and debates about how best to expedite the global implementation of blockchain.
Festival includes 5 Content Stages: Business Summit, Tech Connect Stage, Future Finance Stage, Crypto Impact Stage, GovChain Stage.
Festival program will provide an open-plan educational and networking environment that allows for more hands-on training, meaningful discussion and face-to-face meetings between participants and exhibitors, and will lead an honest discussion about the problems and benefits.
Unlike many other blockchain events, Blockchain Live does not dilute its content with joint technology demonstrations or overly crypto-oriented content. Instead, Blockchain Live focuses solely on the business potential of blockchain & DLT, encouraging conversations and debates about blockchain technology, while at the same time allowing hype and challenging critics to educate, improve their skills and direct long-term thinking on the strategic benefits of blockchain for business, governments and societies.
Lucie Munier, Lead Project Manager | GovChain Research
Naeem Aslam, Columnist | Forbes
Nadeem Ladki, Director of Business Development | Ripple
Caroline Casey, VP, Innovation, Partnerships and Labs — Europe | Mastercard
Don Tapscott, Blockchain Live Festival Headliner — Co-Founder & Executive Chairman | Blockchain Research Institute, Co-Author Blockchain Revolution
Next Event: AUTUMN | 2020 | London, United Kingdom. The date would be announced soon.
  1. Devcon
Devcon is the Ethereum conference for developers, researchers, thinkers, and makers.
Devcon is an annual event held by the Ethereum Foundation. For new explorers of the Ethereum space, Devcon is an intensive introduction to new worlds of thought. For those already embedded, it is a family reunion and a source of energy and creativity.
Programming covers content ranging from the deeply technical to the profoundly human. This is a conference for builders of all kinds: developers, designers, researchers, client implementers, test engineers, infrastructure operators, community organizers, social economists and artists.
We host Devcon to educate and empower the community to build and use decentralized systems. Our goal is to push the boundaries of possibility in our mission to bring decentralized protocols, tools, and culture to the world.
Vitalik Buterin, Creator Ethereum | Ethereum Foundation,
Audrey Tang, Taiwan Digital Minister,
Micah White, Co-Creator of Occupy Wall Street | Activist Grad School,
Zoë Hitzig, PhD candidate in Economics | Harvard,
Andreea Minca, Associate Professor | Cornell University.
The last event was on October 8–11, 2019 at ATC Hall 2 Chome 1–10 Nankokita, Suminoe Ward. Osaka, Japan.
Next Event: Next year, the date would be determined later.
There are much more large crypto contests and festivals, and it’s almost impossible to select it by particular criteria, so we chose the most outstanding events to give you the ability to determine the most suitable for you.
List of hugest crypto events
If you still haven’t decided what the event you’re gonna visit, you can have a look at the list of events from CoinMarketCap:
So, now you’ll probably find the most suitable event for you. Stay with SwapSpace, check out for the hot news.

SwapSpace team is always ready for discussion. You can drop an email about your suggestions and questions to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]) Join our social networks: Twitter, Medium, Facebook The best rates on Why is SwapSpace
submitted by SwapSpace_co to SwapSpace [link] [comments]

PoCC Pool Multi-Chain Mining Statement

The PoCC pools have currently a total capacity of roughly 114PB and deliver together 45% of the Burst mining capacity. In order to lower this percentage, the PoCC has raised the pool fee to 1.5% recently.
In the last days we've successfully piloted collision-free multi-chain mining. It's a technology to be able to mine multiple chains without the adverse effects of collisions.
What are we going to use it for (this applies to our PoCC pools only):
Mine other chains as we deem fit. This includes supporting our testnet as well mining other PoC coins existing or upcoming. We will basically be taking any opportunity we will see in the market for many different reasons, may it be to support our development, to secure our market position or the value of our coin.
Scaling: We are currently running this feature on two of our pools and currently thinking about ways to scale it. Rolling it out to other pools, creating new pools and/or router services are just a few of the options we are currently exploring.
Proceeds: Any proceeds potentially arising from this additional operation will be exclusively spend on Burst projects. We are also thinking about a compensation scheme for our PoCC pool miners. However, this compensation will only be marginal, as we are trying to keep all PoCC pools below 51% capacity.
Opt-out: We are currently working on an opt-out to be released this weekend. If you don't want to support us on our mission but would still like to continue on our pools you can simply flip a switch.
Adverse impact on capacity estimation: The mining capacity on our pools is unaffected - as our tests have proven. The Burst chain has highest priority. Miners with scanning times longer than 40 seconds might marginally be impacted in some rare cases.
A note from JohnnyFFM on energy efficiency:
You might have noticed that we've added a new column on the "All miners" tab of our 0-100 pool info page showing information about the mining software used. I have to confess that I was a bit shocked. The miner I consider best and spent plenty of my time on only has a marginal share of 4.8%.
I'm currently reviewing what to make of it. It might be the missing Q-bundle integration, a missing GUI or something else. It is also concerning me that only 40% of the miners are using software with the optimised shabal routines. Those routines are saving 30-50% of CPU load.
A word on Bitcoin Hard Driver(sic!), a closed source fork of the BTC client utilizing Conditioned Proof-of-Capacity mining with Burst plots a.k.a. the plotting and mining toolchain:
It is a pyramid scheme, it has quite a lot of conceptual and security implications - which many participants seem to know about, yet still do not care "as long as the price/quick buck is right". A mindset we have observed even with long standing veterans in the Burst community.
Because of said pyramid scheme concept (you have to buy in to earn) BHD maintains a price point way beyond a realistic valuation. Greed devours the brain. We are currently interfering with this network to secure our position, which means BHD miners will continue to observe an ever increasing network capacity.
On that note, we would like to point out that 3 BHD per TB "mortgage" means that even if all 21M BHD coins were in existence, there would be a total max of 7EB (Exabyte) of mining capacity hard cap (to get "full" rewards). Currently, the BHD network thinks it has 0.5EB. Think about it.
A word on fud: Obviously there will be people complaining about this. It's mainly members of the BHD community and they are typically not mining on our pools. They will allege us of doing things for our personal profit and so on. You all have seen this before and should know how to handle it.
Please be aware that in this discussion we consider only people who are mining on PoCC pools to have a voice. In case you don't agree with our approach, please let us know by flipping the opt-out we will provide this weekend latest.
submitted by PoC_Consortium to burstcoin [link] [comments]

IOTA and Tangle discussion/info, scam or not?

In the past weeks I heard a lot pros and cons about IOTA, many of them I believe were not true (I'll explain better). I would like to start a serious discussion about IOTA and help people to get into it. Before that I'll contribute with what I know, most things that I will say will have a source link providing some base content.
The pros and cons that I heard a lot is listed below, I'll discuss the items marked with *.


Many users claim that the network infinitely scales, that with more transactions on the network the faster it gets. This is not entirely true, that's why we are seeing the network getting congested (pending transactions) at the moment (12/2017).
The network is composed by full-nodes (stores all transactions), each full-node is capable of sending transactions direct to the tangle. An arbitrary user can set a light-node (do not store all transactions, therefore a reduced size), but as it does not stores all transactions and can't decide if there are conflicting transactions (and other stuff) it needs to connect to a full-node (bitifinex node for example) and then request for the full-node to send a transaction to the tangle. The full-node acts like a bridge for a light-node user, the quantity of transactions at the same time that a full-node can push to the tangle is limited by its brandwidth.
What happens at the moment is that there are few full-nodes, but more important than that is: the majority of users are connected to the same full-node basically. The full-node which is being used can't handle all the requested transactions by the light-nodes because of its brandwidth. If you are a light-node user and is experiencing slow transactions you need to manually select other node to get a better performance. Also, you need to verify that the minimum weight magnitude (difficulty of the Hashcash Proof of Work) is set to 14 at least.
The network seems to be fine and it scales, but the steps an user has to make/know are not friendly-user at all. It's necessary to understand that the technology envolved is relative new and still in early development. Do not buy iota if you haven't read about the technology, there is a high chance of you losing your tokens because of various reasons and it will be your own fault. You can learn more about how IOTA works here.
There are some upcoming solutions that will bring the user-experience to a new level, The UCL Wallet (expected to be released at this month, will talk about that soon and how it will help the network) and the Nelson CarrIOTA (this week) besides the official implementations to come in december.


We all know that currently (2017) IOTA depends on the coordinator because the network is still in its infancy and because of that it is considered centralized by the majority of users.
The coordinator are several full-nodes scattered across the world run by the IOTA foundation. It creates periodic Milestones (zero value transactions which reference valid transactions) which are validated by the entire network. The coordinator sets the general direction for the tangle growth. Every node verifies that the coordinator is not breaking consensus rules by creating iotas out of thin air or approving double-spendings, nodes only tells other nodes about transactions that are valid, if the Coordinator starts issuing bad Milestones, nodes will reject them.
The coordinator is optional since summer 2017, you can choose not implement it in your full-node, any talented programmer could replace Coo logic in IRI with Random Walk Monte Carlo logic and go without its milestones right now. A new kind of distributed coordinator is about to come and then, for the last, its completely removal. You can read more about the coordinator here and here.

Mining-Blockchain-based Cryptocurrencies

These are blockchain-based cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin) that has miners to guarantee its security. Satoshi Nakamoto states several times in the Bitcoin whitepaper that "The system is secure as long as honest nodes collectively control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes". We can see in that nowadays half of the total hashpower in Bitcoin is controlled by 3 companies (maybe only 1 in the future?). Users must trust that these companies will behave honestly and will not use its 50%> hashpower to attack the network eventually. With all that said it's reasonable to consider the IOTA network more decentralized (even with the coordinator) than any mining-blockchain-based cryptocurrency
You can see a comparison between DAG cryptocurrencies here

IOTA partnerships

Some partnerships of IOTA foundation with big companies were well known even when they were not officialy published. Some few examples of confirmed partnerships are listed below, others cofirmed partnerships can be seem in the link Partnerships with big companies at the pros section.
So what's up with all alarming in social media about IOTA Foundation faking partnerships with big companies like Microsoft and Cisco?
At Nov. 28th IOTA Foundation announced the Data Marketplace with 30+ companies participating. Basically it's a place for any entity sell data (huge applications, therefore many companies interested), at time of writing (11/12/2017) there is no API for common users, only companies in touch with IOTA Foundation can test it.
A quote from Omkar Naik (Microsoft worker) depicted on the Data Marketplace blog post gave an idea that Microsoft was in a direct partnership with IOTA. Several news websites started writing headlines "Microsoft and IOTA launches" (The same news site claimed latter that IOTA lied about partnership with Microsoft) when instead Microsoft was just one of the many participants of the Data Marketplace. Even though it's not a direct partnership, IOTA and Microsoft are in close touch as seen in IOTA Microsoft and Bosch meetup december 12th, Microsoft IOTA meetup in Paris 14th and Microsoft Azure adds 5 new Blockchain partners (may 2016). If you join the IOTA Slack channel you'll find out that there are many others big companies in close touch with IOTA like BMW, Tesla and other companies. This means that right now there are devs of IOTA working directly with scientists of these companies to help them integrate IOTA on their developments even though there is no direct partnership published, I'll talk more about the use cases soon.
We are excited to partner with IOTA foundation and proud to be associated with its new data marketplace initiative... - Omkar Naik

IOTA's use cases

Every cryptocurrency is capable of being a way to exchange goods, you pay for something using the coin token and receive the product. Some of them are more popular or have faster transactions or anonymity while others offers better scalablity or user-friendness. But none of them (except IOTA) are capable of transactioning information with no costs (fee-less transactions), in an securely form (MAM) and being sure that the network will not be harmed when it gets more adopted (scales). These characteristics open the gates for several real world applications, you probably might have heard of Big Data and how data is so important nowadays.
Data sets grow rapidly - in part because they are increasingly gathered by cheap and numerous information-sensing Internet of things devices such as mobile devices, aerial (remote sensing), software logs, cameras, microphones, radio-frequency identification (RFID) readers and wireless sensor networks.
It’s just the beginning of the data period. Data is going to be so important for human life in the future. So we are now just starting. We are a big data company, but compared to tomorrow, we are nothing. - Jack Ma (Alibaba)
There are enormous quantities of wasted data, often over 99% is lost to the void, that could potentially contain extremely valuable information if allowed to flow freely in data streams that create an open and decentralized data lake that is accessible to any compensating party. Some of the biggest corporations of the world are purely digital like Google, Facebook and Amazon. Data/information market will be huge in the future and that's why there so many companies interested in what IOTA can offer.
There are several real world use cases being developed at the moment, many of them if successful will revolutionize the world. You can check below a list of some of them.
These are just few examples, there are a lot more ongoing and to explore.

IOTA Wallet (v2.5.4 below)

For those who have read a lot about IOTA and know how it works the wallet is fine, but that's not the case for most users. Issues an user might face if decide to use the current wallet:
Problems that could be easily avoided with a better understand of the network/wallet or with a better wallet that could handle these issues. As I explained before, some problems during the "congestion" of the network could be simply resolved if stuff were more user-friendly, this causes many users storing their iotas on exchanges which is not safe either.
The upcoming (dec 2017) UCL Wallet will solve most of these problems. It will switch between nodes automatically and auto-reattach transactions for example (besides other things). You can have full a overview of it here and here. Also, the upcoming Nelson CarrIOTA will help on automatic peer discovery for users setup their nodes more easily.

IOTA Vulnerability issue

On sept 7th 2017 a team from MIT reported a cryptographic issue on the hash function Curl. You can see the full response of IOTA members below.
Funds were never in danger as such scenarios depicted on the Neha's blogpost were not pratically possible and the arguments used on the blogpost had'nt fundamentals, all the history you can check by yourself on the responses. Later it was discovered that the whole Neha Narula's team were envolved in other concurrent cryptocurrency projects
Currently IOTA uses the relatively hardware intensive NIST standard SHA-3/Keccak for crucial operations for maximal security. Curl is continuously being audited by more cryptographers and security experts. Recenlty IOTA Foundation hired Cybercrypt, the world leading lightweight cryptography and security company from Denmark to take the Curl cryptography to its next maturation phase.
It took me a couple of days to gather the informations presented, I wanted it to make easier for people who want to get into it. It might probably have some mistakes so please correct me if I said something wrong. Here are some useful links for the community.
This is my IOTA donation address, in case someone wants to donate I will be very thankful. I truly believe in this project's potential.
This is a donation address, if you want to do the same you might pay attention to some important details:
  • Create a seed for only donation purposes.
  • Generate a address and publish it for everyone.
  • If you spend any iota you must attach a new address to the tangle and refresh your donation address published before to everyone.
  • If someone sends iota to your previous donation address after you have spent from it you will probably lose the funds that were sent to that specific address.
  • You can visualize how addresses work in IOTA here and here.
This happens because IOTA uses Winternitz one-time signature to become quantum resistent. Every time you spend iota from a address, part of the private key of that specific address is revealed. This makes easier for attackers to steal that address balance. Attackers can search if an address has been reused on the tangle explorer and try to brute force the private key since they already know part of it.
submitted by mvictordbz to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments] Mining Website Full Review { Legit or Scam } Live withdraw Proof ? tutorial: Bitcoin mining with CGMiner Bitcoin Generator 2020 legit miner btc payment proof GPUMining.CC - Free Bitcoin Mining [2019] Free bitcoin cloud mining website // new bitcoin mining site // scam or legit

It is common for many miners to start with the Minergate console miner. This is so because it usually works very well with your CPU. This is so because it usually works very well with your CPU. It is however good to know that unless your interest is in ETC or ETH, your GPU is not really being properly utilized. hMinerPTS Bitcoin Miner simple bitcoin miner for all kind of pool and work on all system CCMiner – CUDA Miner. CCMiner stands for Crypto Currency Miner and is an open source software developed specifically for NVIDIA’s CUDA-compatible GPUs. This software is available and works on both Linux and Windows. Since this miner is open source, all versions, source code and download links are available on GitHub. ccminer ccminer is an open source project for CUDA compatible GPUs (nVidia). The project is compatible with both Linux and Windows platforms. tpruvot version - focused on the core, api and monitoring, compatible with linux and windows.; Releases - Source code - Forum; KlausT version - close to SP version, more clean.; Releases - Source code; Christian Buchner original version (inactive since Welcome to W elcome to, a crypto-currency mining and commodity exchange company. Soon miners will be able to join one of the leading Bitcoin mining company’s in the United States and capitalize on the enormous potential the technology offers.

[index] [1240] [16505] [24348] [17614] [31051] [26176] [20569] [1255] [22019] [20213] Mining Website Full Review { Legit or Scam } Live withdraw Proof ?

This video shows you how to set up CCminer-Crypto to mine ByteCoin with your Nivida cards. Bytecoin Pool : Port: 3333, 7777, and 9999 (For High End Hardware) Set your bat file ... Hi, Friends Welcome To Bitcoin Mining ___ 100% Real LEGIT !!!! Free Bitcoin Cloud Mining Website + Payment Proof -Earn Free Bitcoins Daily But re-doing the math I can see where we may never even earn back the $69 we spent on our Bitcoin miner. The only real chance to make money with these virtual currencies is to get a new, more ... Noob's Guide To Bitcoin Mining - Super Easy & Simple - Duration: 11:37. UFD Tech 2,497,721 views. 11:37. Slushs pool mining tutorial - cgminer worker setup - Duration: 5:45. 1 Bitcoin In Day 4 WebSite mining Automatically - Duration: 13:00. Make Future Recommended for you. 13:00. I Gave My Credit Card To Random People - Duration: 16:48.

Flag Counter