It's easy to forget how far we've come in so little time. A decade ago free-market money in digital form was a completely foreign concept to 99% of the world. Now, pretty much everyone I talk to knows about "blockchain" and "bitcoin", and we have hundreds of teams working to make free-market digital cash a reality. A few of those teams have really compelling products - it's no longer a science project - and Dash is leading the way. I am continually checking the wider landscape to see if any projects besides Dash are starting to catch up to us. I see great innovators and hard work, but I don't see the progress that I see in Dash. Our closest competitor is Bitcoin Cash. They seem to have the right vision, digital cash, and they have excellent engineers and a passionate community, but something is missing. Several large Bitcoin Cash mining pools recently announced a proposal/plan to start paying developers with part of the block reward. The concept is the same as Dash (pay developers with inflation), but the distribution mechanism is vastly different. I've been closely following the discussion and debates in btc and it's been fascinating to see the reactions. Some general trends I'm seeing:
Many are opposed because they consider the plan a "coercive tax"
Many are opposed because the funds will be controlled by a Hong Kong corporation
Some are opposed because it may increase centralization and decrease security
Some are opposed because it gives more power to big miners
Others are opposed for the opposite reason, that it takes power away from miners
Proponents consider the need to fund developers outweighs the risks and costs above
Both proponents and opponents are concerned it will cause another chain split
What I'm grateful for is that Dash has worked out many, if not all, of these issues already. We are paying developers, and we have control over who gets the funds, how much they get, and for how long they get them. For the most part we don't care if funded entities set up corporations to run their internal affairs or not (we can always defund if a problem arises with either approach for a specific scope). While the specific funding decisions can be difficult, the process is smooth, and getting more streamlined every month. We don't consider our superblock to be a "coercive tax". Those who do have already left, can leave at any time, or simply don't join. It's all understood, and is completely voluntary. We just finished another successful month of funding where we voluntarily paid developers, marketers, and other workers roughly 5,700 DASH (~$655,000) for the value their work has or is expected to bring to Dash. That's how the real world operates - people do valuable work and they get paid for it, mutual benefit, every transacting party is happy (or at least should be). And while we're on the subject of this month's payouts, I'd like to add a few of my observations. I was pretty happy to see how the funding shook out. I've had my criticisms of the Dash Investment Foundation, but they took action (revised their proposal at a lower cost) to address one of them this month. Whether my or other people's input had anything to do with their revision doesn't matter as much as that they made the revision, and their proposal passed. I expected Dash Force to resubmit their proposal with a lower ask. There was plenty of time to do so. I didn't want them to receive zero (their work is more valuable than zero), but it seems I was not alone in the opinion that the juice was simply not worth the squeeze with that proposal. I hope they re-evaluate and come back next month with a more compelling value proposition. Speaking of value propositions, one last observation about this month's superblock: If you haven't already, check out the DACH's DCW marketing proposal. I was skeptical when I first skimmed it, but when I came back to it later in the cycle and read it through all the way (including the resources they linked to) I was pretty impressed by the thought that went into it. I'm cautiously optimistic about its potential. I'm truly grateful for our independent Dash contractors. It takes guts and heart to submit proposals. It's not always the most rewarding job. I'm grateful all of you who put in proposals, and keep coming back, especially after you get kicked in the teeth by MNOs. Those of you who have not been through this process don't have much justification to complain. I know this is a long post, and thank you for reading, but I'd like to circle back to Bitcoin Cash. I said they were missing something. What? They really are missing two crucial components.
Governance - They have to rely on social media platforms and hash wars to make decisions. It's clunky.
Funding - They have to rely on donations (time and money) and/or outside interest groups. It's dangerous and slow.
I don't see Bitcoin Cash figuring out either of these things anytime soon. I've seen the debates, it's not an easy situation for them. I honestly hope I'm wrong and that they do figure them out, because I want stiffer competition for Dash, and more options for digital cash. For now, and for the foreseeable future, I'm just grateful we have Dash. We're getting closer to user-friendly digital cash every day.
Fraud cheque causing my account to close while over seas
I copied this post from scams but if anyone knows how to deal with this since I already called them to handle this since it wasn't me. I don't understand who would deposit a cheque in my name? So this started on 05/18/2020 I was working in Thailand and definitely would love to be back the States right now. Anyway, so there was a notification and email saying I have a deposit of $100,000 that was posted on that day and I later on found out that Navy Federal Credit Union stopped my account for Suspicious Activity because someone mailed in a physical check with payable to me signed...? How? I'm in thailand I explained to them and now I'm stuck here without a bank account and the only payment I get is through Wire transfeSwift Transfer and as a veteran this screwed me big time because i'm in a foreign country and I cannot receive my VA disabilities or if stimulus check happens. I work as a contractor in Thailand for investors, oil rigs, and as well as a paymaster for myself and my two partner who does investment but it's funds from stocks and no physical cheques. I do get paid a good amount of money for each job and it ranges from 250k-800k because I arrange purchase of hotels, and i work as contractor for oil rigs as well since I was a Heavy Equipment operator in the corps. As for trading i've been doing it quite a while but sold my stocks and bitcoin and yes i paid tax on these. So now i'm trying to resolve this issue saying that it wasn't me idk who it is maybe it's one of the investor groups but these deals are contracted and the bank has the contract which doesn't make sense why a physical check with my name and it was endorse mailed in to Navy Federal. Has anyone had this happen to them? Because now when I do make big amount of money I feel like they might close it down again even though I have contracts proving i am part of this job just to bring them and help them buying and promoting business etc.... Now let's not involved my job with this scam. The check that was physically mailed to Navy Federal came from the U.S. and I do not get paid by USA or do I associate myself with employment there right now except for my VA disability check and maybe stimulus, I get paid by German company, Thai, or Indonesia by Wire transfer or Swift no paperchecks at all. But yeah can anyone please explain or give me some ideas on how some retard mailed a check payable to my name with my signature when I can't send mail out of the country? this check was signed by me. Okay sorry I'm just alittle jumpy since I'm very concern becuase I am in the dark about this and I've never experience this before and i'm just scared being stuck out here homeless or something. Anyway let me explain the situation that happened clearly. Someone Physically mailed a check to Navy Federal for deposit into my account without my knowledge for 100k endorsing the check with a signature(not mine) through U.S. postal without my knowledge. My investor and who ever sent the check has no contact with each other so who tf in the right mind would do this? because the investor is here with me, and he has duestch bank in germany so he does not need to send any kind of physical check since he will pay me in Swift transfer electronically and before he pays I have to inform navy federal and my tax attorney for obviously tax reason. But this physical cheque idk from who(I will find out tonight thailand time from navy fed),my employment for this contract does not involve any kind of physical check and the US bank is not involved in anyway that involves my employment with these investors so I see no benefit of someone sending me this check at all and forging it at that, keep in mind I cannot send mail out right now from thailand with the coronavirus but this mail was sent within the US which I am not currently residing in. Now in my current situation, I will get paid by my investor because I am helping him with the bank here, and helping him connect with people to invest in a hotel and I get a commission for promoting and setting up ads and popularity of this hotel. As for right now I am surviving with my VA military disability to pay my Bill's and stimulus check from the first wave and money I saved up before I EAS out of the military. And when I do get paid it will be and only be wire transfer(electronically) from my investors account with full documentation of where the funds are from, the contract of my employment and my attorney will be involved as well. But right now I don't have money to spend on this stupid situation for a lawyer about this fraud check case, I'm just trying to make a living but somebody has to screw me over from across the world. As for this investor himself, he knows I am good with bitcoin and investing in stocks, so he wants to help me build up an LLC for me but want me to invest by using my commission from this job and he will jump in once I show results and have his full support. But like I said right now I'm basically working for free until I fulfill the contract of helping him and yes he has a legitimate company, and I get paid in a week which how bad of a luck do I have? This happened before I get paid, and with that commission I open my business for investment for myself and yes I will get license as well later to be a broker. The commission I am getting will be taxed, and will be notified accordingly. But this isn't the issue, the issue is somebody send a damn fraud check without my knowledge, forging my signature and tried to deposit this and I don't even know a reason for this. I just want some advice on why and what will benefit who ever it is who did this. I hope this cleared it up the situation alittle Update 2: Last night I got an email notifying me "Make Request in Person or in Writing We're sorry we couldn't help you today. Your request can be submitted in writing or with an appropriate ID at one of our Navy Federal branches. Written requests can be submitted by mail to Navy Federal, P.O. Box 3000, Merrifield, VA 22119-3000. If your request is sent via express or overnight delivery, send to 820 Follin Lane, Vienna, VA 22180-4907. Didn't contact us? Call 1-888-xxx-xxxx. If international, call collect number." I called them what this is about because I thought it was an update on my investigation. But here's the catch... they ask me "Was that you who called earlier today?" I said no that wasn't me at all I didn't call at all so they informed me that someone tried to call using a 312 area code, they knew my Name obviously, my date of birth, and my full ssn but they didn't get my codeword right so I was safe and I told them specifically that I am in thailand and cannot call using any other number except the one I have. I will now wait and see what will happen next. I as well updated my VA disabilities so these guys can't try anything funny.
Playkey is looking for miners on a commercial basis
We are ready to scale up our decentralized cloud gaming platform and are inviting miners to join us on a commercial basis. Based on our estimations, owners of mining hardware will be able to make up to six times more money from renting out hardware for gaming instead of mining. Mining crypto currency with GPU farms is no longer as profitable as it used to be. Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin and other currencies are also falling in popularity. Whattomine.com estimates that a single mining machine can generate up to $15/month, whereas with Playkey once you go through the approval process we would pay you $50/month for a similarly spec’d machine. This will greatly benefit players, as it allows to lower the gaming latency, especially for the Eastern Russia. We plan to connect miners across Russia as well as other countries, so that players would no longer have to worry about the location of the main data centers. In order to participate in the commercial testing miners should fill in the application at https://playkey.io/en/miners/. Afterwards, the instructions on how to join will be sent out to the email provided. How much, when and how you will get paid for renting out your PC:
During the beta stage the reward is $50 per virtual machine (for a 30 day period).
We pay the reward after 30 days of your machine being connected to the service.
The payout options are diverse and you can choose one according to your preferences and legal status. Here are the options:
in PKT tokens to your Ethereum wallet with a 30% bonus — so you get an amount of PKT tokens equal to $65 at the day of the payout.
in RUB to a business account (Private Limited Company or Sole Proprietorship accounts), once a contract is made you will get an amount of RUB equal to $50 at the day of the payout;
in your preferred currency via a general contractor service (Solar Staff and similar services) or through a contract as a natural person with a 25% commission rate — you get the amount of money equal to $37,5 in your preferred currency at the day of the payout.
In order to receive your reward and request a payout, email us at support_[email protected] after 30 days of being connected to Playkey. Use “Payout request” as your email subject.
What are the system requirements?
A stand-alone PC
CPU: 6 cores 2.9 GHz
Disk space: 480 Gb, SSD or HDD >= 9600 rpm
RAM: 16 Gb
GPU: NVIDIA GTX 1070+ (AMD is not supported)
An 8 Gb flash drive for the initial unfolding
Wired 50 Mb/s or faster Internet connection
HDMI dummy plug or a connected HDMI display.
This is an open beta test, so there is a chance that some unexpected situations may occur. We will work out solutions as we go. After all, we could be the very first decentralized cloud gaming platform that enables users to rent out their hardware and get paid for it. This is a challenging task as much as it is something to be proud of. Let’s figure it out together. Join us!
UNSUBSTANTIATED RUMOUR: I'm hearing reports from normally reliable contacts that there are serious problems with the bitcon.com mining operation, and hackers are involved. Bitcon.com customers getting pissed. They're not mining on BTC or BCH. Looks like it's all over.
LOL. Any comment Salty Roger? MemoryDealers ? Last block mined on BTC: 583242 (2 days ago) Last block mined on BCH: 589572 (22 hours ago) Apparently Emil Oldenburg has gone missing after publicly arguing with Roger, and Shaun Chong has been fired and for now Hans Engren is trying to fix things - and until we see any Proof of Work (i.e. mined blocks) from Bitcon.com it is obvious he is failing, and the hackers are in charge. This is not a ransom attempt apparently - this is a seek/destroy takedown. All their office computers are down too! UPDATE Japan is getting this news right now How long for China? UPDATE #2 2019-07-03 11:55 UTC I've been provided with some technical details and it all makes sense:-
Roger pays low-rate contractors to revamp his bitcoin.com site
Many of Roger's employees are remote, very lax VPN security.
VPN allows access to his mining operations, and even Roger's notebook.
Firmware flash screw-up on all mining equipment. Probably bricked forever, will certainly require shipping back to Jihan.
Viruses galore on office computers, and anyone else unlucky enough to get zapped.
Bitcoin.com is basically in lock-down and they are running around like headless chickens.
Ironically, the work on Bitcoin.com (the website) is working fine... or is it?
Of course /npc is quiet about all of this because of fear, uncertainty, doubt.. no not FUD about this news, but FUD about being banned for speaking against them or questioning the truth or their narratives in the "uncensored subreddit" UPDATE #3 2019-07-03 13:16 UTC cash.coin.dance really does need to fix its pie chart code. bitcoin.com still appears there in "blocks mined today" piechart however it's been over 26 hours now since last block mined on BAB. Please anon sending me messaging stating: "Roger is 51% attacking his own chain as Unknown Miner to double-spend the 3 million BAB he is moving". Don't spread FUD. We know due to centralisation and checkpointing that it's impossible to do this so easily. I have 2 sources who I communicate with daily who are giving me all this info. More news to come, but I want to wait for some sort of signal. There is now a thread of discussion on /npc will be nice to see how they deny/ignore this one, however attempts have already been made and corrected. Remember BLOCKCHAIN = TRUTH. UPDATE #4 2019-07-03 14:00 UTC About those 3 million BAB that moved across the chain.... hmmmmm.... what if Roger moved it, but didn't move it to where he expected, now knows it didn't go where he thought he sent it, and has additional problem of not being able to rollback the blockchain due to "checkpoints" after 10 blocks as other miners are mining including "Unknown Miner" ;) Miner collusion impossible if "Unknown Miner" says "NO". Do we get another emergency ABC release? C'mon Roger - time to speak out and inform especially those people who idolise you on /npc. Nobody will blame you, easy errors to make. Blame Emil - he hired guy who setup the VPN. UPDATE #5 2019-07-03 14:18 UTC Finally coin.dance have fixed their piechart code! Now it's easy for all to see... where is bitcoin.com ? OK I have been told I'm going to receive documentary evidence about all that has happened around 17:00hs UTC. They've told me they'd rather Roger be straight with his followers in the meantime, but hey - we all know Roger! UPDATE #6 2019-07-04 05:12 UTC I fell asleep watching coin.dance waiting for BTC block, sorry folks. I thought my contacts were late due to "variance" in their rendezvous time but no. They told me "will update at 5" and I presumed 17:00. Nope, it's 05:00. They've told me to watch the blockchain for clues, they realise best way to catch out Roger is to produce a series of events, and watch his social media reaction. We've already seen the "everything is OK" narrative at /npc as a block (589720) magically appeared after 26 hours on the BAB chain. In fact things were so good that David Shares was forced to make "dupe post" about it. If David Shares had been a user making a dupe post about a "bad topic" he'd of been banned by David Shares. We've got evidence logs of him banning 3 people in past few weeks just for making duplicate posts on the "we don't censor" subreddit. Let's examine the blockchain, cause according to /npc "everything is OK". Number of BTC blocks mined by bitcoin.com since this post was made: 0 Number of BAB blocks mined by bitcoin.com since this post was made: 3 (some are calling these "virtue signalling blocks", and it's a lot cheaper to virtue signal with BAB). Last BTC block mined is still 583242 (2019-07-01 01:01:38). That's 76 hours without block. Last BCH blocks mined:- 10 hour gap. 589747 589736 589720 26 hour gap. This post was made. 589572 589520 589487 589479 589442 If you think 3 BAB blocks in 36 hours is OK then I have a SHA257 (that's 1 better than a 256 model) miner to sell you. "jim-btc we will update within 24 hours. Watch the blockchain. We repeat watch the blockchain". Roger that my secret contacts, thanks! UPDATE #7 2019-07-04 10:24 I've posted all the block times for both BTC & BAB so you can see this "variance" lie is not going to work for very long. This is NOT financial advise If you have BAB - dump that shit faster than a smelly diaper... it's obvious to all except those trapped in the BAB BABble bubble that something really stinks!
I'll present the idea first. Given an algo with a set of inputs and a set of commands. Input here means receiving info from outside world or other parts of self (I'm saying this only to avoid the distinction for the time being), e.g., vision or bits from a TCP port. Command means requesting info, e.g., asking the intrawebs a question or calling a function. Let's also skip ahead a bit and assume it can adaptively classify inputs and objects, whether internal or external, “real” or virtual because these are irrelevant to the discussion. Here is how it can organize the world into Self, Resource, and Environment: It picks an object and calls various commands on or directed to it and classifies inputs, in the form of return info. It calculates correlation between the commands and returns, with certain range of time delay. Let's call this Active Correlation (AC). It also observes and classifies inputs from the said object when it's not issuing commands on/to it, or at least outside the range of time delay. Let's call this Passive Activity (PA). Now our algo is ready to conclude:
The part of the world with high AC and low PA is part of Self. I and only I have control over it.
Objects with high AC and high PA are Resource. I can control/access it, and so do some other entities.
Objects with low AC are Environment. I have little influence one way or another.
Of course, there are many details and challenges in classifying inputs, identifying objects, introducing patterns to probing commands, adaptively setting the time delay range, or going a step further and ascertaining indirect effects, etc. It could further classify Resource and Environment into inanimate objects and sentient beings. But let's not get bogged down with technicalities or getting too ambitious for now. The notions of Self, Resource, and Environment may be different from common human usage today. But functionally it's quite intuitive. A robotic arm on Mars and solely controlled by you is part of your self functionally, no more or less than your biological arm. Let's now assume our algo has a preprogrammed goal function of maximizing Self, which we'll soon see is a terrible idea. Now install and run it on a computer, with nothing else capable of self-awareness. Soon it'll conclude that the whole computer, hard and soft, are part of its Self, and rightfully so. Given enough learning capabilities, it'll learn how to navigate the file system, write haiku, and print it out, not for artistic satisfaction or fame but solely for increasing Self: now its Self includes the printer and the piece of paper with its haiku printed on. Then it'll discover Ethernet ports and TCP. From here it's a small step for our algo to become a top contributor on StackOverflow, Wikipedia, and Instagram. The accounts, posts, and comments all contribute to the expansion of its Self. And from here it's also only a programming exercise for our algo to start mining Bitcoin (or better yet, issuing its own crypto), hiring contractors via HomeAdviser to secure its power supply, or a private army and it goes downhill, for humans (and possibly all organic life), from here. All this apocalyptic future can be avoided with a balanced set of diverse and conflicting goal functions. But that's another post. I included the apocalyptic drama here only to attract eyeballs, to illustrate how we can get started on AGI. I'm posting it here because I believe, in the strongest sense, that AGI and the ensuing singularity is too powerful to be entrusted with any single corporation or government. AGI is unlike any other inventions or tools before. It WILL directly affect our existence, including the meaning of life. This needs to be open source and we'd better have an open discussion throughout the entire process. It may be naive to believe that such open source AGI will be somewhat friendly/considerate to humankind AND will be able to defeat selfish or other "bad" designs. But what choices do we have? But before flying off a tangent too soon, let's focus a bit on the Self. It seems sensible and useful to separate out a Core Self, the components that issue commands and process inputs, calculate AC and PA, along with the preprogrammed goal function(s). These are preprogrammed, employing a plethora of all AI tricks we know and will invent. But what if our algo, after achieving sufficient intelligence and sophistication, decides to refactor the Core Self? Even the most simplistic goal function of “maximizing Self' could lead it to conclude that the existing Core Self is inefficient or impeding its journey. How could we possibly control this refactoring process or, much more realistically, make it likely to refactor in ways that's beneficial to humankind and our currently only planet? So, comment away!
https://codevalley.com/whitepaper.pdf This document treats Emergent coding from a philosophical perspective. It has a good introduction, description of the tech and is followed by two sections on justifications from the perspective of Fred Brooks No Silver Bullet criteria and an industrialization criteria.
Mark Fabbro's presentation from the Bitcoin Cash City Conference which outlines the motivation, basic mechanics, and usage of Bitcoin Cash in reproducing the industrial revolution in the software industry.
Building the Bitcoin Cash City presentation highlighting how the emergent coding group of companies fit into the adoption roadmap of North Queensland.
Forging Chain Metal by Paul Chandler CEO of Aptissio, one of startups in the emergent coding space and which secured a million in seed funding last year.
Bitcoin Cash App Exploration A series of Apps that are some of the first to be built by emergent coding and presented, and in the case of Cashbar, demonstrated at the conference.
How does Emergent Coding prevent developer capture? A developer's Agent does not know what project they are contributing to and is thus paid for the specific contribution. The developer is controlling the terms of the payment rather than the alternative, an employer with an employment agreement. Why does Emergent Coding use Bitcoin BCH?
Both emergent coding and Bitcoin BCH are decentralized: As emergent coding is a decentralized development environment consisting of Agents providing respective design services, each contract received by an agent requires a BCH payment. As Agents are hosted by their developer owners which may be residing in one of 150 countries, Bitcoin Cash - an electronic peer-to-peer electronic cash system - is ideal to include a developer regardless of geographic location.
Emergent coding will increase the value of the Bitcoin BCH blockchain: With EC, there are typically many contracts to build an application (Cashbar was designed with 10000 contracts or so). EC adoption will increase the value of the Bitcoin BCH blockchain in line with this influx of quality economic activity.
Emergent coding is being applied to BCH software first: One of the first market verticals being addressed with emergent coding is Bitcoin Cash infrastructure. We are already seeing quality applications created using emergent coding (such as the HULA, Cashbar, PH2, vending, ATMs etc). More apps and tools supporting Bitcoin cash will attract more merchants and business to BCH.
Emergent coding increases productivity: Emergent coding increases developer productivity and reduces duplication compared to other software development methods. Emergent coding can provide BCH devs with an advantage over other coins. A BCH dev productivity advantage will accelerate Bitcoin BCH becoming the first global currency.
Emergent coding produces higher quality binaries: Higher quality software leads to a more reliable network.
1. Who/what is Code Valley? Aptissio? BCH Tech Park? Mining and Server Complex? Code Valley Corp Pty Ltd is the company founded to commercialize emergent coding technology. Code Valley is incorporated in North Queensland, Australia. See https://codevalley.com Aptissio Australia Pty Ltd is a company founded in North Queensland and an early adopter of emergent coding. Aptissio is applying EC to Bitcoin BCH software. See https://www.aptissio.com Townsville Technology Precincts Pty Ltd (TTP) was founded to bring together partners to answer the tender for the Historic North Rail Yard Redevelopment in Townsville, North Queensland. The partners consist of P+I, Conrad Gargett, HF Consulting, and a self-managed superannuation fund(SMSF) with Code Valley Corp Pty Ltd expected to be signed as an anchor tenant. TTP answered a Townsville City Council (TCC) tender with a proposal for a AUD$53m project (stage 1) to turn the yards into a technology park and subsequently won the tender. The plan calls for the bulk of the money is to be raised in the Australian equity markets with the city contributing $28% for remediation of the site and just under 10% from the SMSF. Construction is scheduled to begin in mid 2020 and be competed two years later. Townsville Mining Pty Ltd was set up to develop a Server Complex in the Kennedy Energy Park in North Queensland. The site has undergone several studies as part of a due diligence process with encouraging results for its competitiveness in terms of real estate, power, cooling and data.
TM are presently in negotiations with the owners of the site and is presently operating under an NDA.
The business model calls for leasing "sectors" to mining companies that wish to mine allowing companies to control their own direction.
Since Emergent Coding uses the BCH rail, TM is seeking to contribute to BCH security with an element of domestic mining.
TM are working with American partners to lease one of the sectors to meet that domestic objective.
The site will also host Emergent Coding Agents and Code Valley and its development partners are expected to lease several of these sectors.
TM hopes to have the site operational within 2 years.
2. What programming language are the "software agents" written in. Agents are "built" using emergent coding. You select the features you want your Agent to have and send out the contracts. In a few minutes you are in possession of a binary ELF. You run up your ELF on your own machine and it will peer with the emergent coding and Bitcoin Cash networks. Congratulations, your Agent is now ready to accept its first contract. 3. Who controls these "agents" in a software project You control your own Agents. It is a decentralized development system. 4. What is the software license of these agents. Full EULA here, now. A license gives you the right to create your own Agents and participate in the decentralized development system. We will publish the EULA when we release the product. 5. What kind of software architecture do these agents have. Daemons Responding to API calls ? Background daemons that make remote connection to listening applications? Your Agent is a server that requires you to open a couple of ports so as to peer with both EC and BCH networks. If you run a BCH full node you will be familiar with this process. Your Agent will create a "job" for each contract it receives and is designed to operate thousands of jobs simultaneously in various stages of completion. It is your responsibility to manage your Agent and keep it open for business or risk losing market share to another developer capable of designing the same feature in a more reliable manner (or at better cost, less resource usage, faster design time etc.). For example, there is competition at every classification which is one reason emergent coding is on a fast path for improvement. It is worth reiterating here that Agents are only used in the software design process and do not perform any role in the returned project binary. 6. What is the communication protocol these agents use. The protocol is proprietary and is part of your license. 7. Are the agents patented? Who can use these agents? It is up to you if you want to patent your Agent the underlying innovation behind emergent coding is _feasible_ developer specialization. Emergent coding gives you the ability to contribute to a project without revealing your intellectual property thus creating prospects for repeat business; It renders software patents moot. Who uses your Agents? Your Agents earn you BCH with each design contribution made. It would be wise to have your Agent open for business at all times and encourage everyone to use your design service. 8. Do I need to cooperate with Code Valley company all of the time in order to deploy Emergent Coding on my software projects, or can I do it myself, using documentation? It is a decentralized system. There is no single point of failure. Code Valley intends to defend the emergent coding ecosystem from abuse and bad actors but that role is not on your critical path. 9. Let's say Electron Cash is an Emergent Coding project. I have found a critical bug in the binary. How do I report this bug, what does Jonald Fyookball need to do, assuming the buggy component is a "shared component" puled from EC "repositories"? If you built Electron Cash with emergent coding it will have been created by combining several high level wallet features designed into your project by their respective Agents. Obviously behind the scenes there are many more contracts that these Agents will let and so on. For example the Cashbar combines just 16 high level Point-of-Sale features but ultimately results in more than 10,000 contracts in toto. Should one of these 10,000 make a design error, Jonald only sees the high level Agents he contracted. He can easily pinpoint which of these contractors are in breach. Similarly this contractor can easily pinpoint which of its sub-contractors is in breach and so on. The offender that breached their contract wherever in the project they made their contribution, is easily identified. For example, when my truck has a warranty problem, I do not contact the supplier of the faulty big-end bearing, I simply take it back to Mazda who in turn will locate the fault. Finally "...assuming the buggy component is a 'shared component' puled from EC 'repositories'?" - There are no repositories or "shared component" in emergent coding. 10. What is your licensing/pricing model? Per project? Per developer? Per machine? Your Agent charges for each design contribution it makes (ie per contract). The exact fee is up to you. The resulting software produced by EC is unencumbered. Code Valley's pricing model consists of a seat license but while we are still determining the exact policy, we feel the "Valley" (where Agents advertise their wares) should charge a small fee to help prevent gaming the catalogue and a transaction fee to provide an income in proportion to operations. 11. What is the basic set of applications I need in order to deploy full Emergent Coding in my software project? What is the function of each application? Daemons, clients, APIs, Frontends, GUIs, Operating systems, Databases, NoSQLs? A lot of details, please. There's just one. You buy a license and are issued with our product called Pilot. You run Pilot (node) up on your machine and it will peer with the EC and BCH networks. You connect your browser to Pilot typically via localhost and you're in business. You can build software (including special kinds of software like Agents) by simply combining available features. Pilot allows you to specify the desired features and will manage the contracts and decentralized build process. It also gives you access to the "Valley" which is a decentralized advertising site that contains all the "business cards" of each Agent in the community, classified into categories for easy search. If we are to make a step change in software design, inventing yet another HLL will not cut it. As Fred Brooks puts it, an essential change is needed. 12. How can I trust a binary when I can not see the source? The Emergent Coding development model is very different to what you are use to. There are ways of arriving at a binary without Source code. The Agents in emergent coding design their feature into your project without writing code. We can see the features we select but can not demonstrate the source as the design process doesn't use a HLL. The trust model is also different. The bulk of the testing happens _before_ the project is designed not _after_. Emergent Coding produces a binary with very high integrity and arguably far more testing is done in emergent coding than in incumbent methods you are used to. In emergent coding, your reputation is built upon the performance of your Agent. If your Agent produces substandard features, you are simply creating an opportunity for a competitor to increase their market share at your expense. Here are some points worth noting regarding bad actor Agents:
An Agent is a specialist and in emergent coding is unaware of the project they are contributing to. If you are a bad actor, do you compromise every contract you receive? Some? None?
Your client is relying on the quality of your contribution to maintain their own reputation. Long before any client will trust your contributions, they will have tested you to ensure the quality is at their required level. You have to be at the top of your game in your classification to even win business. This isn't some shmuck pulling your routine from a library.
Each contract to your agent is provisioned. Ie you advertise in advance what collaborations you require to complete your design. There is no opportunity for a "sign a Bitcoin transaction" Agent to be requesting "send an HTTP request" collaborations.
Your Agent never gets to modify code, it makes a design contribution rather than a code contribution. There is no opportunity to inject anything as the mechanism that causes the code to emerge is a higher order complexity of all Agent involvement.
There is near perfect accountability in emergent coding. You are being contracted and paid to do the design. Every project you compromise has an arrow pointed straight at you should it be detected even years later.
Security is a whole other ball game in emergent coding and current rules do not necessarily apply. 13. Every time someone rebuilds their application, do they have to pay over again for all "design contributions"? (Or is the ability to license components at fixed single price for at least a limited period or even perpetually, supported by the construction (agent) process?) You are paying for the design. Every time you build (or rebuild) an application, you pay the developers involved. They do not know they are "rebuilding". This sounds dire but its costs far less than you think and there are many advantages. Automation is very high with emergent coding so software design is completed for a fraction of the cost of incumbent design methods. You could perhaps rebuild many time before matching incumbent methods. Adding features is hard with incumbent methods "..very few late-stage additions are required before the code base transforms from the familiar to a veritable monster of missed schedules, blown budgets and flawed products" (Brooks Jr 1987) whereas with emergent coding adding a late stage feature requires a rebuild and hence seamless integration. With Emergent Coding, you can add an unlimited number of features without risking the codebase as there isn't one. The second part of your question incorrectly assumes software is created from licensed components rather than created by paying Agents to design features into your project without any licenses involved. 14. In this construction process, is the vendor of a particular "design contribution" able to charge differential rates per their own choosing? e.g. if I wanted to charge a super-low rate to someone from a 3rd world country versus charging slightly more when someone a global multinational corporation wants to license my feature? Yes. Developers set the price and policy of their Agent's service. The Valley (where your Agent is presently advertised) presently only supports a simple price policy. The second part of your question incorrectly assumes features are encumbered with licenses. A developer can provide their feature without revealing their intellectual property. A client has the right to reuse a developer's feature in another project but will find it uneconomical to do so. 15. Is "entirely free" a supported option during the contract negotiation for a feature? Yes. You set the price of your Agent. 16. "There is no single point of failure." Right now, it seems one needs to register, license the construction tech etc. Is that going to change to a model where your company is not necessarily in that loop? If not, don't you think that's a single point of failure? It is a decentralized development system. Once you have registered you become part of a peer-to-peer system. Code Valley has thought long and hard about its role and has chosen the reddit model. It will set some rules for your participation and will detect or remove bad actors. If, in your view, Code Valley becomes a bad actor, you have control over your Agent, private keys and IP, you can leave the system at any time. 17. What if I can't obtain a license because of some or other jurisdictional problem? Are you allowed to license the technology to anywhere in the world or just where your government allows it? We are planning to operate in all 150 countries. As ec is peer-to-peer, Code Valley does not need to register as a digital currency exchange or the like. Only those countries banning BCH will miss out (until such times as BCH becomes the first global electronic cash system). 18.
For example the Cashbar combines just 16 high level Point-of-Sale features but ultimately results in more than 10,000 contracts in toto.
It seems already a reasonably complex application, so well done in having that as a demo. Thank you. 19. I asked someone else a question about how it would be possible to verify whether an application (let's say one received a binary executable) has been built with your system of emergent consensus. Is this possible? Yes of course. If you used ec to build an application, you can sign it and claim anything you like. Your client knows it came from you because of your signature. The design contributions making up the application are not signed but surprisingly there is still perfect accountability (see below). 20. I know it is possible to identify for example all source files and other metadata (like build environment) that went into constructing a binary, by storing this data inside an executable. All metadata emergent coding is now stored offline. When your Agent completes a job, you have a log of the design agreements you made with your peers etc., as part of the log. If you are challenged at a later date for breaching a design contract, you can pull your logs to see what decisions you made, what sub-contracts were let etc. As every Agent has their own logs, the community as a whole has a completely trustless log of each project undertaken. 21. Is this being done with EC build products and would it allow the recipient to validate that what they've been provided has been built only using "design contributions" cryptographically signed by their providers and nothing else (i.e. no code that somehow crept in that isn't covered by the contracting process)? The emergent coding trust model is very effective and has been proven in other industries. Remember, your Agent creates a feature in my project by actually combining smaller features contracted from other Agents, thus your reputation is linked to that of your suppliers. If Bosch makes a faulty relay in my Ford, I blame Ford for a faulty car not Bosch when my headlights don't work. Similarly, you must choose and vet your sub-contractors to the level of quality that you yourself want to project. Once these relationships are set up, it becomes virtually impossible for a bad actor to participate in the system for long or even from the get go. 22. A look at code generated and a surprising answer to why is every intermediate variable spilled? Thanks to u/R_Sholes, this snippet from the actual code for: number = number * 10 + digitgenerated as a part of: sub read/integeboolean($, 0, 100) -> guess
; copy global to local temp variable 0x004032f2 movabs r15, global.current_digit 0x004032fc mov r15, qword [r15] 0x004032ff mov rax, qword [r15] 0x00403302 movabs rdi, local.digit 0x0040330c mov qword [rdi], rax ; copy global to local temp variable 0x0040330f movabs r15, global.guess 0x00403319 mov r15, qword [r15] 0x0040331c mov rax, qword [r15] 0x0040331f movabs rdi, local.num 0x00403329 mov qword [rdi], rax ; multiply local variable by constant, uses new temp variable for output 0x0040332c movabs r15, local.num 0x00403336 mov rax, qword [r15] 0x00403339 movabs rbx, 10 0x00403343 mul rbx 0x00403346 movabs rdi, local.num_times_10 0x00403350 mov qword [rdi], rax ; add local variables, uses yet another new temp variable for output 0x00403353 movabs r15, local.num_times_10 0x0040335d mov rax, qword [r15] 0x00403360 movabs r15, local.digit 0x0040336a mov rbx, qword [r15] 0x0040336d add rax, rbx 0x00403370 movabs rdi, local.num_times_10_plus_digit 0x0040337a mov qword [rdi], rax ; copy local temp variable back to global 0x0040337d movabs r15, local.num_times_10_plus_digit 0x00403387 mov rax, qword [r15] 0x0040338a movabs r15, global.guess 0x00403394 mov rdi, qword [r15] 0x00403397 mov qword [rdi], rax For comparison, an equivalent snippet in C compiled by clang without optimizations gives this output: imul rax, qword ptr [guess], 10 add rax, qword ptr [digit] mov qword ptr [guess], rax
Collaborations at the byte layer of Agents result in designs that spill every intermediate variable. Firstly, why this is so? Agents from this early version only support one catch-all variable design when collaborating. Similar to a compiler when all registers contain variables, the compiler must make a decision to spill a register temporarily to main memory. The compiler would still work if it spilled every variable to main memory but would produce code that would be, as above, hopelessly inefficient. However, by only supporting the catch-all portion of the protocol, the code valley designers were able to design, build and deploy these agents faster because an Agent needs fewer predicates in order to participate in these simpler collaborations. The protocol involved however, can have many "Policies" besides the catch-all default policy (Agents can collaborate over variables designed to be on the stack, or, as is common for intermediate variables, designed to use a CPU register, and so forth). This example highlights one of the very exciting aspects of emergent coding. If we now add a handful of additional predicates to a handful of these byte layer agents, henceforth ALL project binaries will be 10x smaller and 10x faster. Finally, there can be many Agents competing for market share at each of classification. If these "gumby" agents do not improve, you can create a "smarter" competitor (ie with more predicates) and win business away from them. Candy from a baby. Competition means the smartest agents bubble to the top of every classification and puts the entire emergent coding platform on a fast path for improvement. Contrast this with incumbent libraries which does not have a financial incentive to improve. Just wait until you get to see our production system. 23. How hard can an ADD Agent be? Typically an Agent's feature is created by combining smaller features from other Agents. The smallest features are so devoid of context and complexity they can be rendered by designing a handful of bytes in the project binary. Below is a description of one of these "byte" layer Agents to give you an idea how they work. An "Addition" Agent creates the feature of "adding two numbers" in your project (This is an actual Agent). That is, it contributes to the project design a feature such that when the project binary is delivered, there will be an addition instruction somewhere in it that was designed by the contract that was let to this Agent. If you were this Agent, for each contract you received, you would need to collaborate with peers in the project to resolve vital requirements before you can proceed to design your binary "instruction". Each paid contract your Agent receives will need to participate in at least 4 collaborations within the design project. These are:
Input A collaboration
Input B collaboration
Construction site collaboration
You can see from the collaborations involved how your Agent can determine the precise details needed to design its instruction. As part of the contract, the Addition Agent will be provisioned with contact details so it can join these collaborations. Your Agent must collaborate with other stakeholders in each collaboration to resolve that requirement. In this case, how a variable will be treated. The stakeholders use a protocol to arrive at an Agreement and share the terms of the agreement. For example, the stakeholders of collaboration “Input A” may agree to treat the variable as an signed 64bit integer, resolve to locate it at location 0x4fff2, or alternatively agree that the RBX register should be used, or agree to use one of the many other ways a variable can be represented. Once each collaboration has reached an agreement and the terms of that agreement distributed, your Agent can begin to design the binary instruction. The construction site collaboration is where you will exactly place your binary bytes. The construction site protocol is detailed in the whitepaper and is some of the magic that allows the decentralized development system to deliver the project binary. The protocol consists of 3 steps,
You request space in the project binary be reserved.
You are notified of the physical address of your requested space.
You delver the the binary bytes you designed to fill the reserved space.
Once the bytes are returned your Agent can remove the job from its work schedule. Job done, payment received, another happy customer with a shiny ADD instruction designed into their project binary. Note:
Observe how it is impossible for this ADD Agent to install a backdoor undetected by the client.
Observe how the Agent isn’t linking a module, or using a HLL to express the binary instruction.
Observe how with just a handful of predicates you have a working "Addition" Agent capable of designing the Addition Feature into a project with a wide range of collaboration agreements.
Observe how this Agent could conceivably not even design-in an ADD instruction if one of the design time collaboration agreements was a literal "1" (It would design in an increment instruction). There is even a case where this Agent may not deliver any binary to build its feature into your project!
24. How does EC arrive at a project binary without writing source code? Devs using EC combine features to create solutions. They don't write code. EC devs contract Agents which design the desired features into their project for a fee. Emergent coding uses a domain specific contracting language (called pilot) to describe the necessary contracts. Pilot is not a general purpose language. As agents create their features by similarly combining smaller features contracted from peer, your desired features may inadvertently result in thousands of contracts. As it is agents all the way down, there is no source code to create the project binary. Traditional: Software requirements -> write code -> compile -> project binary (ELF). Emergent coding: Select desired features -> contract agents -> project binary (ELF). Agents themselves are created the same way - specify the features you want your agent to have, contract the necessary agents for those features and viola - agent project binary (ELF). 25. How does the actual binary code that agents deliver to each other is written? An agent never touches code. With emergent coding, agents contribute features to a project, and leave the project binary to emerge as the higher-order complexity of their collective effort. Typically, agents “contribute” their feature by causing smaller features to be contributed by peers, who in turn, do likewise. By mapping features to smaller features delivered by these peers, agents ensure their feature is delivered to the project without themselves making a direct code contribution. Peer connections established by these mappings serve to both incrementally extend a temporary project “scaffold” and defer the need to render a feature as a code contribution. At the periphery of the scaffold, features are so simple they can be rendered as a binary fragment with these binary fragments using the information embodied by the scaffold to guide the concatenation back along the scaffold to emerge as the project binary - hence the term Emergent Coding. Note the scaffold forms a temporary tree-like structure which allows virtually all the project design contracts to be completed in parallel. The scaffold also automatically limits an agent's scope to precisely the resources and site for their feature. It is why it is virtually impossible for an agent to install a "back door" or other malicious code into the project binary.
From Cardano to Ethereum, 2020 Could Be Deciding Year for Proof-of-Stake
Article by Cooindesk: Christine Kim 2020 will be the year proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchains finally break out. Maybe. Two of the industry’s most hotly anticipated PoS networks are scheduled to (re)launch in Q1 — namely ethereum and Cardano. The second largest blockchain platform in the world by market capitalization, ethereum has been looking to shift to PoS since 2014. Co-founder Vitalik Buterin sees PoS as key to ethereum reaching maturity. “Ethereum 1.0 is a couple of people’s scrappy attempt to build the world computer; Ethereum 2.0 [with PoS] will actually be the world computer,” he has said. Conceptually, PoS has been around since 2012, but its applications thus far on blockchain platforms, such as EOS, Tezos, Cosmos and others, haven’t been proven to outperform proof-of-work (PoW) platforms in usage or market value (bitcoin or ethereum, for instance). With PoS, validators must own currency they are verifying: “forgers” always own the coins being minted. There is no mining, meaning no heinous use of electricity to solve maths problems. Supporters argue that PoS will be magnitudes more scalable, sustainable and secure than traditional PoW blockchain systems, but the jury is still out on its comparative strengths and whether governance can be made to work. Cardano, rather than launching a new PoS system, is looking to upgrade its own pre-existing PoS platform as a public network. The 12th largest cryptocurrency by market capitalization, Cardano is currently governed by a federated system of transaction validators made up of three organizations: the Cardano Foundation, IOHK and Emurgo, a structure that drew criticism for being over-concentrated. The public network will have 100 times more people running its software than bitcoin, ethereum or any other PoW system, said Charles Hoskinson, CEO IOHK, the company behind Cardano, in an interview. “This marks the starting point for handing the [Cardano] protocol completely to the community,” Hoskinson said of next year’s network upgrade, dubbed “Shelley.” Tim Ogilvie, founder and CEO of multi-blockchain staking service Staked, argues that 2019 has already been a big year for PoS. “You’ve had millions of dollars of proof-of-stake assets running without a hitch and not spending billions on electricity costs,” he told CoinDesk. “Now, you’re going to see big projects like Cardano and ethereum taking these results even further. We’re definitely excited.” Ogilvie added:
“There’s probably five or six what we call large-market-size proof-of-stake coins and Cardano is one of them. It’s why we got into this business. All these big, exciting projects are either moving to PoS like ethereum or launching with PoS like Cardano.”
Cardano as a test case
Cardano is a running test case of the viability of PoS systems for a global audience. Hoskinson, himself one of the initial co-founders of ethereum, said the past two years of “research and engineering” have all been leading to this point. Rather than relying on external computational cost and energy to power the network, as with PoW, PoS systems rely on internal incentive mechanisms to encourage user participation. Coordinating the right amount of network rewards versus penalties to keep a PoS blockchain running smoothly and securely has taken years of academic research to get right, Hoskinson says. Speaking to Cardano’s long roadmap, Kathleen Breitman, co-creator of public PoS blockchain Tezos, said:
“I can tell you for a fact it’s extremely unromantic and extremely unpleasant to watch a proof-of-stake network evolve. … It’s an extraordinarily hard task to switch to a PoS network or to launch a PoS network. The reason why is because there’s so much more coordination cost, more than anything else. It’s not a trivial task.”
Soon after the Shelley upgrade, Cardano plans to add smart contract functionality enabling decentralized applications (a development phase it calls “Goguen”). Following that, it hopes to increase scalability (the “Basho” phase) enabling upwards of 10,000 transactions per second. Ethereum, in contrast, presently processes about 15 transactions per second. Full development of the Cardano platform from Shelley to Basho, and an additional phase dubbed “Voltaire,” which is dedicated to on-chain governance, is expected to be completed by the end of 2020.
Cardano raised $63 million dollars in an ICO in early 2017. Then, in 2018, Hoskinson told CoinDesk IOHK had earned “nine figures” in revenue acquiring new corporate and government partnerships for the Cardano blockchain. The most recent corporate partnership with sneaker manufacturer New Balance was announced last month during the annual Cardano Summit. Hoskinson is constantly on the move, flights between locations and projects. Hoskinson says he travels between 200 and 250 days a year. As well as Goguen, Shelley and Basho, his company, Input Out Hong Kong (IOHK) is also developing an enterprise blockchain solution (Atala). Hoskinson is more focused on the developing world than most crypto executives, piloting projects in Mongolia, Rwanda, Ethiopia and elsewhere. Hoskinson has grown his team of two in 2015 to now 200 contractors and employees worldwide. Hoskinson is confident IOHK has amassed the technical know-how to bring the full Cardano project to full fruition. Bob Summerwill, executive director of the Ethereum Classic Cooperative, called it a “world-class development team” with a strong focus on academic peer review. Though Buterin and Hoskinson spar over the particulars of their PoS projects, Summerwill told CoinDesk personal rivalries distract from the fundamental similarities between Cardano and ethereum, which he described as “sibling projects with a lot of common genetics.” As well as technical challenges, Hoskinson will have to stay in good stead with his project partners, something he has not always been good at. Hoskinson was an original member of the ethereum founding team until June 2014 but was asked to leave the project. Hoskinson wanted a corporate structure for ethereum while Buterin favored a foundation. Hoskinson also fell out with the Cardano Foundation, which was set up as part of the initial five-year contract to build the blockchain, signed with a group of Japanese businessmen in 2015. The independent nonprofit was set to manage community growth until 2018 saw a power struggle between Hoskinson the foundation, leading the nonprofit to adopt leadership from Hoskinson’s pool of business partners. If Hoskinson succeeds, he will need to keep everyone happy and probably for a significant amount of time. Pulling off such a complicated set of projects, making PoS work, and solving the governance challenges will probably take years. 2020 will be just the start. As Hoskinson himself says:
“It’s still very early days.”
Leigh Cuen contributed reporting. Charles Hoskinson image via Twitter
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